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Constantine X Doukas Timeline

Constantine X Doukas Timeline

  • 1059

    Isaac I Komnenos steps down as Byzantine emperor due to illness and appoints Constantine X Doukas as his successor.

  • 1060

    Constantine X Doukas escapes an assassination plot in Constantinople.

  • 16 Aug 1064

    Seljuk Turks, under Alp Arslan, sack the former Armenian capital of Ani, then under Byzantine control.

  • 1066

    The first Norman fleet is assembled to attack the Byzantine-held Balkans.

  • 22 May 1067

    Constantine X Doukas dies in Constantinople from an illness.

  • 1068

    The Normans under Robert Guiscard begin the three-year siege of Bari, the Byzantine provincial capital of southern Italy.


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About Eudokia Makrembolitissa, byzantine empress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eudokia Makrembolitissa or Eudocia Macrembolitissa (Greek: Ευδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα), (1021�), was the second wife of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X Doukas. After his death (1067) she became the wife of Romanos IV Diogenes. She was also the niece of Michael Keroularios, Patriarch of Constantinople, whose sister had married John Makrembolites.

She married Constantine sometime before 1050. By Constantine she had seven children one died as a child and two, Konstantios and Zoe, were born after Constantine became Byzantine emperor in 1059. When Constantine died in 1067 she was confirmed as regent for their sons Michael VII and Konstantios, along with Constantine's brother, the Caesar John Doukas. Michael VII was just old enough to rule on his own, but nevertheless was considered co-emperor with his younger brother, while Eudokia ran the administration of the empire.

She had also sworn on Constantine's deathbed not to marry again, and had even imprisoned and exiled Romanos Diogenes, who was suspected of aspiring to the throne. However, perceiving that she was not able to avert the invasions which threatened the eastern frontier of the empire unaided, she revoked her oath and married Romanos, without the approval of John Doukas, the patriarch John Xiphilinos, or Michael VII. The marriage took place on January 1, 1068, and Romanus was immediately proclaimed co-emperor as Romanos IV. With his assistance Eudokia was able to dispel the impending danger. She had two sons with Romanos IV, Nikephoros and Leo. Another of Eudokia and Constantine's sons, Andronikos Doukas, was now made co-emperor by Romanos IV, although he had been excluded from power by his own father, mother, and brothers. However, Eudokia did not live very happily with her new husband, who was warlike and self-willed and increasingly excluded her from power. When he was taken prisoner by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert (1071), Eudokia and Michael again assumed the government, until it was discovered that Romanos had survived and was returning to Constantinople. John Doukas and the Varangian Guard then compelled Eudokia to leave power to Michael and retire to a convent.

After Michael VII was deposed in 1078 by Nikephoros III, Eudokia was recalled by the new emperor who offered to marry her. This plan did not come to pass, due to the opposition of the Caesar John Doukas, and Eudokia died as a nun sometime after the accession of Alexius I Comnenus in 1081.

Eudokia compiled a dictionary of history and mythology, which she called Ἰωνιά, i.e. Collection or bed of Violets. It is prefaced by an address to her husband Romanos Diogenes, in which she describes the work as "a collection of genealogies of gods, heroes, and heroines, of their metamorphoses, and of the fables and stories respecting them found in the ancients containing also notices of various philosophers." The sources from which the work was compiled are in a great degree the same as those used in the Suda.

By her first marriage, to Constantine X Doukas, Eudokia had:

Andronikos Doukas, co-emperor from 1068 to 1078

Konstantios Doukas, co-emperor from c. 1060 to 1078, died 1081

Theodora Doukaina, who married Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice

Zoe Doukaina, who married Adrianos Komnenos, a brother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

By her second marriage, to Romanos IV Diogenes, Eudokia had:

Michael Psellos was very close to the family, and Eudokia considered him an "uncle". According to Psellus she was very noble, beautiful, and intelligent.


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About Constantine X, Eastern Roman Emperor

Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia. Constantine gained influence after he married, as his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, the niece of Patriarch Michael Keroularios. In 1057, Constantine supported the usurpation of Isaac I Komnenos, but gradually sided with the court bureaucracy against the new emperor's reforms. In spite of this tacit opposition, Constantine was chosen as successor by the ailing Isaac in November, 1059, under the influence of Michael Psellos. Isaac abdicated and on November 24, 1059, Constantine X Doukas was crowned emperor.

The new emperor quickly associated two of his young sons in power, appointed his brother John Doukas as kaisar (Caesar) and embarked on a policy favorable to the interests of the court bureaucracy and the church. Severely undercutting the training and financial support for the armed forces, Constantine X fatally weakened Byzantine defences (by disbanding the Armenian local militia of 50,000 men) at a crucial point of time, coinciding with the westward advance of the Seljuk Turks and their Turcoman allies.

Constantine became naturally unpopular with the supporters of Isaac within the military aristocracy, who attempted to assassinate him in 1061 he was also unpopular with the general population, after he raised taxes to try to pay the army at long last.

Constantine lost most of Byzantine Italy to the Normans under Robert Guiscard, except for the territory around Bari, though a resurgence of interest in retaining Apulia occurred under his watch and he appointed at least four catepans of Italy: Miriarch, Maruli, Sirianus, and Mabrica. He also suffered invasions from Alp Arslan in Asia Minor in 1064 and the Uzes in the Balkans in 1065. Already old and unhealthy when he came to power, he died on May 22, 1067 and was succeeded by his young sons under the regency of their mother Eudokia Makrembolitissa.

Family

By his first wife, a daughter of Constantine Dalassenos, Constantine X Doukas had no known children. By his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Constantine X had the following issue:

  1. Michael VII Doukas, who succeeded as emperor.
  2. Andronikos Doukas, co-emperor from 1068 to 1078.
  3. Konstantios Doukas, co-emperor from c. 1060 to 1078, died 1081.
  4. Anna Doukaina, a nun
  5. Theodora Anna Doukaina, who married Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice.
  6. Zoe Doukaina, who married Adrianos Komnenos, a brother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

(primary source) Michael Psellus, Chronographia.

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Coins of Constantine X Doukas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia. Constantine gained influence after he married, as his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, the niece of Patriarch Michael Keroularios. In 1057, Constantine supported the usurpation of Isaac I Komnenos, but gradually sided with the court bureaucracy against the new emperor's reforms. In spite of this tacit opposition, Constantine was chosen as successor by the ailing Isaac in November, 1059, under the influence of Michael Psellos. Isaac abdicated and on November 24, 1059, Constantine X Doukas was crowned emperor.

The new emperor quickly associated two of his young sons in power, appointed his brother John Doukas as kaisar (Caesar) and embarked on a policy favorable to the interests of the court bureaucracy and the church. Severely undercutting the training and financial support for the armed forces, Constantine X fatally weakened Byzantine defences (by disbanding the Armenian local militia of 50,000 men) at a crucial point of time, coinciding with the westward advance of the Seljuk Turks and their Turcoman allies.

Constantine became naturally unpopular with the supporters of Isaac within the military aristocracy, who attempted to assassinate him in 1061 he was also unpopular with the general population, after he raised taxes to try to pay the army at long last.

Constantine lost most of Byzantine Italy to the Normans under Robert Guiscard, except for the territory around Bari, though a resurgence of interest in retaining Apulia occurred under his watch and he appointed at least four catepans of Italy: Miriarch, Maruli, Sirianus, and Mabrica. He also suffered invasions from Alp Arslan in Asia Minor in 1064 and the Uzes in the Balkans in 1065. Already old and unhealthy when he came to power, he died on May 22, 1067 and was succeeded by his young sons under the regency of their mother Eudokia Makrembolitissa.

By his first wife, a daughter of Constantine Dalassenos, Constantine X Doukas had no known children. By his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Constantine X had the following issue:

Michael VII Doukas, who succeeded as emperor.

Andronikos Doukas, co-emperor from 1068 to 1078.

Konstantios Doukas, co-emperor from c. 1060 to 1078, died 1081.

Theodora Anna Doukaina, who married Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice.

Zoe Doukaina, who married Adrianos Komnenos, a brother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.

(primary source) Michael Psellus, Chronographia.

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.

Constantino X Ducas (1006 - mayo de 1067) fue emperador del Imperio Bizantino entre 1059 y 1067. Fue nombrado sucesor por Isaac Comneno, antes de retirarse a un monasterio, gracias al consejo de Miguel Psellos.

Constantino estaba casado con Eudocia Macrembolitissa, sobrina de Miguel Cerulario. Tanto Eudocia como Miguel Psellos fueron figuras muy poderosas durante su reinado. Valedor de la aristocracia civil de Constantinopla, fue bastante impopular. Limitó considerablemente la financiación del ejército, lo que se tradujo en importantes pérdidas territoriales. Durante su reinado, se perdieron casi todas las posesiones bizantinas en Italia (a excepción de un exiguo territorio alrededor de Bari) a manos del normando Roberto Guiscardo también se produjeron las invasiones de los selyྫྷidas, guiados por Alp Arslan, quienes conquistaron Armenia y Capadocia. Constantino, que ya era anciano cuando accedió al poder, murió en 1067. Constantine X Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ Δούκας, Kōnstantinos X Doukas 1006 – May 1067) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067.

Constantine Doukas was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia. Constantine gained influence after he married, as his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, the niece of Patriarch Michael Keroularios. In 1057, Constantine supported the usurpation of Isaac I Komnenos, but gradually sided with the court bureaucracy against the new emperor's reforms. In spite of this tacit opposition, Constantine was chosen as successor by the ailing Isaac in November, 1059, under the influence of Michael Psellos. Isaac abdicated and on November 24, 1059, Constantine X Doukas was crowned emperor.

The new emperor quickly associated two of his young sons in power, appointed his brother John Doukas as kaisar (Caesar) and embarked on a policy favorable to the interests of the court bureaucracy and the church. Severely undercutting the training and financial support for the armed forces, Constantine X fatally weakened Byzantine defences (by disbanding the Armenian local militia of 50,000 men) at a crucial point of time, coinciding with the westward advance of the Seljuk Turks and their Turcoman allies.

Constantine became naturally unpopular with the supporters of Isaac within the military aristocracy, who attempted to assassinate him in 1061 he was also unpopular with the general population, after he raised taxes to try to pay the army at long last.

Constantine lost most of Byzantine Italy to the Normans under Robert Guiscard, except for the territory around Bari, though a resurgence of interest in retaining Apulia occurred under his watch and he appointed at least four catepans of Italy: Miriarch, Maruli, Sirianus, and Mabrica. He also suffered invasions from Alp Arslan in Asia Minor in 1064 and the Uzes in the Balkans in 1065. Already old and unhealthy when he came to power, he died on May 22, 1067 and was succeeded by his young sons under the regency of their mother Eudokia Makrembolitissa.

By his first wife, a daughter of Constantine Dalassenos, Constantine X Doukas had no known children. By his second wife, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Constantine X had the following issue:

Michael VII Doukas, who succeeded as emperor.

Andronikos Doukas, co-emperor from 1068 to 1078.

Konstantios Doukas, co-emperor from c. 1060 to 1078, died 1081.

Theodora Anna Doukaina, who married Domenico Selvo, Doge of Venice.

Zoe Doukaina, who married Adrianos Komnenos, a brother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.


Michael VII Ducas

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Michael VII Ducas, Ducas also spelled Doukas also called Michael VII Parapinaces, (born c. 1050, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]—died c. 1090, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (1071–78) whose policies hastened the conquest of Asia Minor by the Turks.

The eldest son of Constantine X Ducas, Michael was a minor on his father’s death (May 21, 1067), and his mother assumed the regency of the Byzantine Empire. Because of the dangerous military and political situation, she soon married the military commander Romanus Diogenes, who was crowned coemperor as Romanus IV in January 1068. On the defeat of Romanus by the Seljuq Turks at Manzikert in 1071, Michael was proclaimed sole emperor (October 24).

When a Norman mercenary, Roussel de Bailleul, rebelled and attempted to set up a separate kingdom in Asia Minor, the Byzantines called on the Turks for assistance in subduing him, facilitating the Turkish conquest of Asia Minor and the establishment of the sultanate of Rūm.

Michael increasingly fell under the influence of Nicephoritzes, an official who attempted to create a state monopoly in grain. His policy not only angered the great landowners but also led to higher prices and discontent among the people. When rioting broke out in Constantinople, two rival commanders, Nicephorus Bryennius and Nicephorus Botaneiates, marched on the capital to claim the throne. The latter was proclaimed emperor by his supporters in January 1078. Michael abdicated on March 31, 1078, and became a monk.


The Battle

Manzikert fell to the Byzantines of August 23rd, and Romanos IV and his army began marching south towards Ablat. The Romans still suffered from a lack of reconnaissance, and on the 24th, a small party of Byzantine troops sent to scout ahead was obliterated by Alp Arslan, who moved around the mountains in the east to get a more favorable position for is the army (which mainly consisted of heavy cavalry).

A Seljuk emissary was sent to the Byzantines when they finally met on August 25th, negotiating for peace. Confident in his numbers and falsely believing that the small party from Ablat would return, he declined, stating that he would only negotiate peace in Isfahan, the capital of the Seljuk Empire at the time. He sent a messenger to the second army while he ordered his troops to set up camp and build up fortifications around it. Seljuk Horse archers relentlessly harassed the camp during the night. The 50,000 strong Byzantine Army was divided into 4 groups: The Nordic Varangian Gaurd and Armenians, who were under the Emperor's command and were situated in the front, Foreign mercenaries who formed the banks, and the Byzantine feudal-levy, under the command of Andronicus Doukas, were in the reverse. The latter were ordered to aid the army that was in the gravest of danger.

The smaller Seljuk Army formed a crescent protruding forward. Alp Arslan was in the army furthest from the Byzantines. They Seljuk umbers accumulated to around 30,000.

Romanos marched forward, but the Seljuks, still carrying their nomadic tradition, used the traditional hit-and-run tactic. The Seljuk center continued to move south, while the Seljuk flanks attempted to encircle the Byzantine flanks to no avail. By evening, Romanos IV had seized the Turkish camp and (unlike in OTL) pursues Alp Arslan. It looked as if the more mobile Turkish army was going to evade the Byzantines. Alp Arslan ordered a retreat after hearing that the Seljuk left and right had been crushed by the Byzantines., but with the chaos that was occurring, some soldiers took it as an order to hit-and-run the Byzantines or even an all-out attack. The Turks pursued the Byzantines, halting the Byzantine advance. They fought hard, and soon Romanos IV was issuing orders to Andronicus Doukas for aid. However, a part of the reason for the marriage between Eukodia and Romanos IV (and thus his coronation as emperor) was due to the fact that Eukodia was anxious to limit Doukid power. The Doukas had been feuding with the Emperor ever since, and Andronicus, being apart of the Doukid family, refused to provide assistance and instead withdrew, planning to start a civil war to depose the emperor (like he did in OTL). Needless to say, the Seljuk assault was an absolute failure, with its only upside being that it gave Alp Arslan time to regroup what remained of the Seljuk left and right and flee.

The Byzantines were triumphant and the Seljuks had been humiliated.


Co-Emperor Andronikos Doukas

Andronikos Dukas, living ca 1020 (he was related to Emperor Konstantinos (+913) but exactly how is uncertain) had issue:

  • A1. Konstantinos X Dukas, Emperor of Byzantium (1059-67), +1067 1m: a dau.of Konstantinos Dalassenos 2m: before 1050 Eudokia Makrembolitissa (+1096)
    • .
    • .

    Andronikos Doukas1 b. circa 950, d. 1029 Father Gregoras Doukas b. before 913

    Andronikos Doukas was born circa 950. He was the son of Gregoras Doukas. Strategos of Bulgaria circa 1000. Protostatharios at Byzantine Empire circa 1000. Andronikos Doukas died in 1029. Family

    Children

    1. �sileus Rhomaiôn Constantine X Doukas+ b. c 1000, d. May 10672,3
    2. �sar John Doukas+ b. 1012, d. 10883

    Citations 1.[S204] Roderick W. Stuart, RfC, 215-35. 2.[S269] C. W. Previté-Orton sCMH I, pg. 536, genealogy table 15, (a) the House of Ducas and Comnenus.. 3.[S25] J. M. Hussey, Cambridge Medieval History, Vol 4, Part 1, pg. 793.

    Andronikos Doukas (Greek: Ἀνδρόνικος Δούκας, died ca. 910) was a Byzantine general and rebel in the reign of Emperor Leo VI the Wise (r. 886�). The first member of the illustrious Doukas line to achieve prominence as a successful general, his rivalry with the powerful eunuch Samonas led to his revolt and eventual defection to the Arabs in 906�. He died in exile in Baghdad.

    Andronikos Doukas is the first prominent member of the Doukas family of whom we know some details.[1] A holder of the exalted title of patrikios, he inflicted a major defeat on the Arabs near Germanikeia in November or December 904. This campaign was possibly waged in retaliation of the Arab sack of Thessalonica, the Empire's second-largest city, a few months earlier.[2][3] Probably after his victory, he was raised to the rank of Domestic of the Schools, i.e. commander-in-chief of the Empire's army.[4]

    In 906, he was ordered west to join forces with the fleet under Himerios, which faced a large Arab naval expedition. Andronikos however was reluctant to comply, fearing for his safety: he had received letters from Constantinople warning him that Himerios had been given orders to seize and blind him. In fact, the chroniclers relate, these letters had been sent through the machinations of Samonas, Leo's influential Arab-born eunuch. Samonas bore a personal grudge against the Doukas family ever since Andronikos' son Constantine had seized him during an attempted flight to his native lands a few years earlier.[5] The repeated pleas of Himerios to join him only made Andronikos more suspicious, and he firmly refused to board the flagship. In the event, on 6 October Himerios with his own forces secured a major victory over the Arab fleet. At the news of this, Andronikos with his family and dependents withdrew east and seized the fortress of Kabala, near Iconium.[2][6] There he held out for six months, while Leo sent the new Domestic of the Schools, Gregoras Iberitzes, a relative by marriage to the Doukai, to persuade him to surrender. However, when Andronikos heard the news of the deposition of the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, he resolved to flee and asked for aid from the Arabs.[2][7] In early 907 an Arab force came to his aid, and escorted by them, Andronikos and his family crossed the border, first to Tarsus and finally to Baghdad.[8] The flight of Andronikos Doukas represents a peculiar episode: several scholars, such as Alexander Vasiliev and R.J.H. Jenkins, consider it evidence of a real plot against Leo, which included the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos and perhaps also the admiral Eustathios. Others, such as D.I. Polemis and Shaun Tougher, reject this, explaining it in terms of the rivalry with the powerful Samonas, and Andronikos' untenable position after his refusal to cooperate with Himerios.[2][9]

    Despite Andronikos' defection – or because of it, considering that Leo of Tripoli and Damian of Tyre, Byzantium's most dangerous opponents at the time, were Byzantine renegades – Leo was determined to retrieve him. Personal sympathies also played a role: it is evident that Leo was attached to his general, and even wrote a poem in lamentation of his defection.[10] Consequently, the Emperor sent Andronikos a secret message guaranteeing a safe return, hidden inside a candle. Petronas however contrived for this to fall in the hands of the Caliph's vizier, discrediting the general in the Arabs' eyes. Andronikos was then imprisoned in Baghdad and forced to convert to Islam. He probably died there soon after.[11] His son Constantine however managed to escape Baghdad and return to Byzantium, where he was pardoned by Leo and entrusted with senior military commands.[2][12]

    The careers of both Andronikos and Constantine, who in 913 also mounted an unsuccessful bid for the throne that cost him his life, entered folk legend and provided the models for two personages in the epic poem Digenes Akritas.[13]

    ^ a b c d e Kazhdan (1991), p. 657

    ^ Tougher (1997), pp. 209, 213�

    ^ Tougher (1997), pp. 39, 216�

    ^ Tougher (1997), pp. 209�, 216

    Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6

    Polemis, D.I. (1968), The Doukai: A Contribution to Byzantine Prosopography, London

    Tougher, Shaun (1997), The Reign of Leo VI (886�): Politics and People, BRILL, ISBN 9004097775

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    John Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Ιωάννης Δούκας, Iᓚnnēs Doukas), (died c. 1088), was the son of Andronikos Doukas, a Paphlagonian nobleman who may have served as governor of the theme of Moesia and younger brother of Emperor Constantine X Doukas.


    Ducas

    (Dukai), a dynasty of Byzantine emperors that reigned from 1059 to 1067 and from 1071 to 1078.

    The emperors of the Ducas dynasty included Constantine X (ruled from 1059 to 1067), the founder of the dynasty, a descendent along the maternal line from a feudal family that had been known since the ninth century and that had claimed the imperial throne since the early tenth century Eudocia Macrembolitissa, the widow of Constantine X (ruled from May to December 1067) and Michael VII, the son of Constantine X (ruled from 1071 to 1078).

    Although the Ducas family itself belonged to the provincial aristocracy, the dynasty reflected the interests of the elite of the capital. Its reign was a time of decline for Byzantium, marked by rising taxes, popular uprisings, feudal rebellion, and an invasion of the Seljuk Turks. Removed from power by Nicephorus Botaniates, the Ducas group supported the coup d&rsquoetat of Alexius I Comnenus in 1081. Constantine Ducas, the son of Michael VII, was coruler with Alexius I from 1081 to 1094. In the 13th century the Angeli-Ducas family played an important role and occupied the throne of the state of Epirus.


    The Eagle of the East, Rhomania: An Eastern Roman Timeline (1196 - 1245)

    "Alimino stous kakaktimenous?" Sounds way cooler in the original Latin IMHO.

    Averious

    Averious

    "Alimino stous kakaktimenous?" Sounds way cooler in the original Latin IMHO.

    Averious

    "He spoke of me, in that last moment, as if I was nothing more than a menial to him. a mistake which cost him his life, and saved mine. I endeavoured to meet his words though I would dredge, and rule, better than any before me," - Reflections of Dragases I Grypas, according to the letters of his wife Maria Asen.

    1244 - When the Lakonoi moved, they moved well, brutally cutting a path through any who tried to stop them from getting to their Prince--the screams emanating from his room, which suddenly fell silent, giving the air a tinge of unease at the silence. Maria Asen herself pushed her way from her room to join them, despite their protests, as they kicked in the Prince's door--and the sight before them shocking even the Lakonoi.

    Blood dripped, slowly and with a unique poise, from the Prince's face from his weapon, his hands. The room smelt of iron, and if one could measure it, the burning husk of what had once been a child not yet in his maturity. Those eyes though those cold blue eyes which scanned every last Lakonoi, as if they could scour them from existence, only softened when the Prince saw her Maria.

    It was thus that in the early hours of 29th of January, 1244, Constantine Doukas--patriarch of the Doukas clan, had perished at the hands of a child more than thrice his age junior--and that child? He had died too, in his own way.

    Heraclius was quick decisive, in his demands to his men, his Lakonoi. Half their number would take the bodies of all those who had perished, including Doukas, to be burnt without circumstance, and their ashes were to be poured into the Bosporus. Their other half? They would accompany him once he had washed the vile blood of the Doukai from his brow.

    The young Prince would bathe himself, before having the Patriarch Arsenios awoken suddenly in the early morning by a Lakonoi the Prince wanted his crown--and he trusted no other priest or holy man but Arsenios to place it upon his brow, even if the matter had to be rushed. Under his own authority, one he exercised without a care for the established practices of the Empire, Heraclius also made it a note that during his coronation he and Maria would be married, then and there, so that none could refute it.

    The ceremony was simple, yet functional--playing out as expected at least until Theodore Grypas, Prefect of the West and uncle to Heraclius, burst in on the Hagia Sophia in the moments just following it. The Prefect cared not for the crown, or the fact that Heraclius had simply done as he wished, he cared for his nephew instead--and rushed to check on the boy to see if he was alright.

    Those eyes, they mimicked his brother's in their cold self-assurance--and the large gash upon his right cheek, earned from Constantine, was a sign unto itself. In this, Theodore asked Heraclius one question what did he want?

    The Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans simply replied, in twice-managed words, "My regnal term shall be Dragases [1], naught else," at first, then, "And that the Doukai be purged--along with all their supporters".

    Simple, and firm, notions--and yet the last was in part denied to him. As it turns out, it had been Maria Doukaina who had sent the letter to Theodore--warning the Prefect of what was about to happen in court, the same warning that had seen the Prefect abandon his post to come save his nephew. What had caused the daughter of Constantine to betray him? The barbed manner in which he tore down Maria Komnene as regent, following the death of her daughter in law, as if it was her fault, was that reason. It resonated with her enough to send the letter that had set everything into motion.

    Theodore himself made his own request he wanted Maria left alive, and that was the only one he made to the boy in front of him--a man who's eyes met his own as if they were of the same stock [2]. Dragases saw no reason to deny his uncle this, and the Emperor made his way from the Hagia Sophia into the streets of the Queen of Cities to announce, and present, his Emperorship flanked by the Lakonoi.

    What would follow was a comprehensive purge not seen since the days of Romanos V's early reign--including several creative punishments used by Romanos himself as well. The Doukas family was expunged, root and stem, save for Maria Doukaina and Alexios Doukas by mid-February with the accused poisoner of the beloved Empress Dowager Theodora Asen being drowned in a bucket in public view. Maria herself? She and Theodore grew close, as the story tells it, because of his efforts to protect her from persecution--and they would be wed in late June of 1244 with the dismissive approval of Dragases.

    The young Emperor was just that though young, and relied on his measured and stoic uncle for both public and silent matters. He had to keep the appearance of an Emperor under regency to sate the customs of the Empire yet both Dragases and Theodore functioned together well the light manner in which the Prefect prodded, and the quick manner in which the Emperor picked up on things, easing the notion for both of them throughout the year as Dragases got his bearings.

    In this time the Emperor began to collect young and ambitious aids and friends notably the skilled shipsman Alexandros Napani [3], who would eventually take the reigns as Shipmaster of the Empire in October of 1244 moving to reform the structure of the navy in order to allow it more functionality against the slow encroachment of Italians once more during the short interregnum.

    It was by the customary Grypad Christmas Celebrations that Dragases seemed to have the part of Emperor down, at least for the most part, successfully managing the affair with the aid of Theodore in short measure, proving himself to the major guests such as Demetrios Trainos and Theobald Bloua as a viable Emperor they could follow.

    In the minds of the people at large however it was simply business as usual being ruled by what seemed to be another skilled Grypad Emperor.

    This view would hold unchallenged for the next 5 years.
    --
    [1] His regnal name, Dragases, is supposedly a play on the termage for 'dredge'. A name only he could truly appreciate for himself.

    [2] Dragases was noted for his powerful height and built, being around 6ft tall, and weighing in at 90 or so kgs, at his peak. By 13 he was already almost as tall as Theodore (5'6). While this is impressive for someone born prematurely as he was, he also had physical defects such as loose finger joints (ligament laxity). It is also implied, at least by him himself, that he was infertile--the reason given for why he and his wife could not conceive a child despite their impressive, love-filled, marriage of 62 years.

    [3] Dragases' almost haughty way of handling things when it came to those near his level of power made him few friends in the nobility but those he did make were skilled and loyal. His blunt tendencies carried well into army-life, as his soldiers loved him for his mannerisms and treatment of them, and such things thus well-carried into his treatment of civilians, who in turn loved him as well.
    --
    [1]


    The Eagle of the East, Rhomania: An Eastern Roman Timeline (1196 - 1245)

    By choosing Ravenna as his HQ,Frederick is already a vastly different person from otl.Just saying.

    And yes, I was speaking retrospectively where the capital should have been as the center of HRE.I couldn’t care less what Frederick thinks.His otl policies doomed the HRE.

    So is Venice actually declining as a centre of trade?If the ships are going to Ravenna instead of Venice, the importance of Venice will probably decline.

    I'm not sure where you get that idea from. Frederick's entire policy with things was to keep things close to home and ignore everything else. Considering how events play out within the TL itself I don't say Frederick is 'vastly' different vastly would imply he massively centralized the HRE and placed himself at the actual center of its domains to ensure that. As in OTL he cared only for what he found personally viable and ignored everything else.

    Such a thing is inevitable considering the fact that had they failed the 4th Crusade which they did in this TL, they would have decline due to a myriad of factors (which were explained within this TL itself). The fact that they've held on this long is due to Frederick needing their help to take the throne (giving them land to get an alliance with them) and the fact that they still have enough naval strength to hold out.

    I don't think it's spoilers to say that without Venice's expansive Empire, which it won in OTL with the 4th Crusade and the snowball following, it doesn't stand much chance.

    Averious

    The Great Crusade, often simply titled as the 5th Crusade by Western Sources, was a successful invasion of the Middle East spearheaded by the two Emperors of East and West John III Grypas and Frederick II Hohenstaufen, respectively--alongside the French King Louis IX Capet. Much of the Crusade's 'meat' were Germans/Italians led by Frederick II however the core of the nobles and high personnel that served on the front lines were Roman in most cases due to the precise nature of the Roman involvement in this 5th Crusade.

    Demetrios Trainos - Son of Boniface Trainos, formerly of Montferrat, Demetrios was one of the first Latin-Romans birthed following the resettlement of much of the 4th Crusade's survivors in the Empire following their victories in Anatolia is penance for the sin of attacking fellow Christians. Demetrios would come the heir apparent of Boniface who held the title of Dux of Normandia until his death at the age of 87 in 1238. Demetrios would join the Crusade upon becoming the new Dux of Normandia, and would prove himself an able field commander leading the various Latin-Roman descendant forces from Normandia underneath John III's guidance to victory several times.

    Tancred Raoul - Son of Rogier Raoul Tancred is a legacy-type noble a member of one of the oldest Houses left in the Empire and one that was founded by true Normans no less. Tancred would prove himself an able cavalry commander in the field against the Egyptians and their fast and skilled cavalry men with the Romano-Norman himself capable of wielding the heavy cavalry troops his people were known for--although this time with a Roman flair--to great effect in punching holes through enemy lines and formations in order to allow the Lakonoi or French Knights to carve in deep through these holes.

    Theobald Bloua - Son of the well-known martyr Louis of Blois, Theobald is an older man now--a veteran of internal politics at the age of 56, well removed from his time as a young 17 year old noble by the end of the Great Crusade. Theobald stood as the premiere skirmisher for the entire Great Crusade being made use of by first Demetrios and then Frederick II to commit skilled flanking and battering maneuvers to buy time for more important campaign movements for the wider Crusade. It is implied that at the climactic Siege of Jerusalem Theobald himself was the one who convinced Frederick II to listen to John III's insistence that they dismantle their current siege equipment to build new ones.

    Constantine Hohenstaufen - A 12 year old boy when his father brought him along, Constantine clung at first to Frederick himself, but as his father got more and more busy with the leadership of the core of the Crusader force he would spend more and more time with John III--and in the 4 years of the Great Crusade be shaped into a charismatic and robust infantry commander that gained the undying loyalty of his men with his sheer presence and force of voice. It was Constantine, not Frederick, who made sure the core, of the core German forces, did not break throughout the Siege of Jerusalem--despite how many casualties ensued because these Germans were needed to hold the line. He had come in a boy scared to be parted from his mother, and been forged into a battle hardened veteran before even his 18th birthday.

    Pergington

    Averious

    Aristomenes

    Averious

    As a Greek speaker myself I've found it hard to balance out using Greek as it stands with an English audience. The easiest way to go about it is to convert every Greek word used into its English components, and then put it back together.

    As for casualties? That's a collective casualty ratio it wasn't a thing that happened in one battle--but a gradual and deadly attrition that by the end of the final Roman-Bulgarian war saw the Western Army gutted, with only a core of veterans left.

    Averious

    "Had he died sooner the Empire might have been in better hands," - Constantine Doukas, near-pretender to the Imperial Purple.

    1243 - John III would return to Constantinople alongside what was left of his Lakonoi, a man near death in early January of 1243. It is claimed, at least by scholars at the time that the climate of the near-east, combined with his already weak composition, is what did him in. However, by late January the Emperor was starting to experience a resurgence in energy gradually--as January came to an end, and he was able to spend more time with his family, the Emperor got better to the point of being able to sit in council with the major players within the Empire, but many faces had changed.

    His mother, the Empress Dowager Maria Komnene, had been an able regent for the Empire in his 4 years away on Crusade--however time had not stopped for anyone. First to go was Michael I Psenas, the venerable Patriarch of Constantinople [1], who died infirm in bed in late 1241--yet not before he chose his successor in Arsenios, a skilled theologian and moralist who Michael knew would not be corrupted by the new position [2]. Next to go would be the famed Shipmaster Bardas Isandos, who died just before Christmas of 1241, likely of a stroke. This would cause issues with the Empire's navy that would not be resolved for a near-decade, as Isandos was effectively irreplaceable at this point, which had forced Maria to delegate portions of the fleet to handpicked Admirals in order to stop-gap the situation.

    By the middle of February John was active again--pushing for updates from across the Empire his near-death experience seeming to thrust him on into heavy micromanaging in a time of fear that he had not covered all the Empire's much needed corners well-enough [3]. This had the sad effect of seeing him effectively cut his wife and son out of his life forcing the already strained Theodore to return home often in order to provide stability for Heraclius and his sister-in-law Theodora [4], leaving him to rely on his second-in-command John Vatatzes again and again to hold the Balkan-front. It was in this time that Heraclius was gifted a Varangian axe by Theodore the weapon meant to symbolize the fact that Theodore would always be there, in some capacity--even as 'weapon'--to aid his nephew.

    John's perpetual need to micromanage everything would see him revive the practice of heavy census [5], which was done in order to get an idea of the status of the Empire's internal economy and resource production. The Emperor's continued efforts ruffled several feathers the most vocal of whom was Constantine Doukas--the aged politician who had gradually built up a powerbase for himself as an advocate for the remaining native nobility. Doukas argued with John often, and loudly, the only thing saving Doukas from a happy little 'accident' being the fact that he was backed by powerful members of the nobility--such as the remaining Gabras and Raoul clans, as well as dozens of minor magnate clans within Europe that had perpetuated silently under the reign of first Romanos and then John.

    Things would only take a turn for the worse again in late June of 1243, following a widescale Chrysosbull within that month that rather bluntly tied up loose-ends in Anatolian corruption. The rather interesting aspect of this however is that this corruption had perpetuated the slow regrowth of Anatolia due to the fact that it opened up 'secondary' avenues for revenue and resources--something John would not abide himself, as his goals seemed to be to focus on improving what he saw as the core of the Empire [6].

    In response to this Chrysosbull Heraclius, someone who in his own drive to better himself kept in-depth tabs on as much of the Empire as he could muster as the Imperial Prince, would outright criticize his father for not seeing the bigger picture. This would escalated when John threatened to banish Maria Asen, the former heiress of the now defunct Bulgaria, and Heraclius' 'sweetheart', due to his disgust at the fact that Heraclius would even consider a union with a woman who, even distantly, was his cousin.

    The Heraclius' blunt response broke John--as whatever high he had been riding dropped like a stone and impacted on the ground--the final straw being a moment within the argument when John realized two things he no longer recognized Heraclius as the son he'd, in truth, failed to raise, and that the fight itself mimicked his own with his father before he too had gotten sick, and then died.

    The Emperor would rapidly decline forcing his mother to once more take the reigns in a motion that nearly killed her with grief. It was only in this state, at the edge of death, that John seemed to be able to squash his failures and spend every moment he could with his wife yet his son effectively refused to deal with the man he'd grown to despise. In this vacuum Constantine Doukas began to claw himself into further power--managing to convince both the grief stricken Maria Komnene, and Arsenios to back him as the core-regent in the name of John by the time of November.

    The Emperor would dig in his nails and muster what strength he could to make the needed appearances at the traditional Christmas Celebrations the following month but it wore out what little fuel he had left--and the rest of the year, following the end of the Celebrations on the 25th, would be in freefall. John would fall into a deep coma on the 28th, and not wake up.

    There was nothing witty, not a quip--not a gasp. No last words.

    John III, nicknamed the Wiser by historians, would die silently on the 2nd of January 1244 after 15 years of skilled--if tense--leadership.
    --
    [1] Michael was Patriarch from 1203-1241, a successful career of 38 years. He served through most of Romanos V's reign, and would, in hindsight, serve through most of John's own reign (12 of its 15 years)

    [2] Arsenios was a noted solitary ascetic prior to being called out of his abode in Mount Athos to serve as the new Patriarch of Constantinople. His tenure in office, 1241-1273, would see him back Heraclius over other pretenders--providing stability within a Church that had become directly tied to the Grypads due to now 3 consecutive Patriarch's being aligned to the ruling dynasty.

    [3] John was very self-deprecating of his own leadership constantly, but silently, questioning himself and his choices throughout his reign. It fed into his micromanaging tendencies and would eventually be what hammered in his final nail.

    [4] This would start rumours that Theodore and the Empress were having an affair, however the actual possibility of this was laughable considering Theodora's devotion to her husband despite his shortcomings. John himself even chuckled quite publicly at the notion. Theodore's continued presence would have the effect of seeing Heraclius take on more and more of his traits, which would shape him heavily--at least until a life-altering incident occurred just after his father's passing.

    [5] During the Crisis of the 3rd Century Diocletian, alongside his expanded bureaucracy, created an Empire-altering, and in-depth, checks-and-balances system that allowed the Empire to functionally find the sweet-spot to 'sheer, not skin' the metaphorical sheep that was the Empire providing much-needed resources and supplies through in-kind taxation that was valued against itself. The practice died down as the Empire's coinage was resurrected and in-cash taxation was revived, but it would be revived as a secondary administrative practice by John in his last years in order to sure-up the Empire's internals.

    [6] John himself saw Anatolia as little more than a buffer zone by the end of his reign--instead seeing Western Anatolia and all of Roman Europe as the core territories of the Empire that needed to be invested in.
    --
    A new practice I'm going to start doing is linking the songs I used to write each post when they are finished so, the songs used for this post were


    Nikephoros III [ edit ]

    In 1078 two generals, Nikephoros Bryennios and Nikephoros Botaneiates, simultaneously revolted in the Balkans and Anatolia, respectively. ⎮] Botaneiates gained the support of the Seljuk Turks, [ citation needed ] and he reached Constantinople first.

    Nikephoros Botaneiates marched upon Nicaea, where he proclaimed himself emperor. In the face of the threat posed by Nikephoros Bryennios, his election was ratified by the aristocracy and clergy, while Michael VII resigned the throne with hardly a struggle on 31 March 1078 and retired into the Monastery of Stoudios. ⎯] [a]

    On 24 March 1078, ⎯] Nikephoros III Botaneiates entered Constantinople in triumph and was crowned by Patriarch Kosmas I of Constantinople. With the help of his general Alexios Komnenos, he defeated Nikephoros Bryennios and other rivals at Kalavrye but failed to clear the invading Turks out of Asia Minor. ⎱]

    Alexios was ordered to march against his brother-in-law Nikephoros Melissenos in Asia Minor but refused to fight his kinsman. [ citation needed ] This did not, however, lead to a demotion, as Alexios was needed to counter the expected invasion of the Normans of Southern Italy, led by Robert Guiscard. ⎲] The Doukas faction at court approached Alexios and convinced him to join a conspiracy against Nikephoros III. ⎲] The mother of Alexios, Anna Dalassena, was to play a prominent role in this coup d'état of 1081, along with the current empress, Maria of Alania. ⎳] To aid the conspiracy Maria adopted Alexios as her son, though she was only five years older than he. ⎴] Alexios and Constantine, Maria's son, were now adoptive brothers, and both Isaac and Alexios took an oath that they would safeguard his rights as emperor. ⎵]

    Isaac and Alexios left Constantinople in mid-February 1081 to raise an army against Botaneiates. ⎶] After bribing the Western troops guarding the city, Isaac and Alexios Komnenos entered the capital victoriously on 1 April 1081. ⎷] Alexios was crowned emperor, establishing the Komnenos dynasty.


    Watch the video: Constantine X Doukas. Wikipedia audio article (November 2021).