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The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture and the mysterious burning of the buildings

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture and the mysterious burning of the buildings

The discovery of ancient cultures, and artifacts related to those cultures, often brings for new and surprising information about how our ancient ancestors once lived. Some cultures are discovered to have engaged in very unique practices. One of those cultures is that of the Eastern European Cucuteni-Trypillian.

One of the most striking features of this culture is the manner in which they constructed sophisticated, organized, densely-populated settlements - only to burn them to the ground every 60-80 years to relocate, and rebuild the same settlement as before.

This puzzling practice brings forth many questions as to why a culture would put such effort into creating their settlements only to burn them down. Was this a practice founded on religious principles, or was it simply an exaggerated version of death followed by rebirth? Further research is needed in order to know for certain why the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture engaged in this practice.

A scale reproduction of a Cucuteni-Trypillian village. Wikipedia, ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture inhabited Eastern Europe from approximately 5,400 to 2,700 BC. The area they inhabited extended from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dniester and Dnieper regions, in the area that is known as Moldova today. They covered a vast area of 350,000 square kilometers and created small, densely populated settlements that were 3-4 kilometers apart.

Their culture was advanced in agriculture, as they planted and harvested wheat, barley, peas, and legumes. Archeological evidence shows that they were also skilled in pottery-making, working with clay to create pottery, statues, and other figures. They also crafted jewelry and hooks out of copper.

The Cucuteni-Tripolye had a somewhat sophisticated social organization, with densely populated settlements, which were destroyed and relocated every 60-80 years. A strongly organized society would be required for such regular resettlement of the entire community. Within the culture, the women are said to have been the head of the household. They created textiles and pottery, and did the bulk of the agricultural work. The men are said to have done the hunting, made tools, and cared for the domesticated animals. They men hunted with both traps and tools such as bow and arrow, clubs, and spears, and other techniques such as camouflaging themselves and tracking animals. The religious beliefs of the culture focused on a female deity, the Great Goddess.

Goddess-type sculptures from the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. Wikimedia, ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Anthropomorphic Cucuteni-Trypillian clay figure. Wikipedia, ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

The diet of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture likely consisted mainly of grains, although they were fairly sophisticated in both agriculture and animal husbandry. They grew club wheat, oats, proso millet, rye, barley, and hemp, all which would have been baked into bread. In addition to grains, they cultivated fruits and legumes such as apricots, cherry plums, grapes, peas, and beans. As far as livestock, evidence has indicated they raised domesticated cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep. There is some evidence, which has not been substantiated, to suggest that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture also included domesticated horses. In addition to raising domesticated animals, the men also hunted roe deer, red deer, aurochs, wild boar, fox, and brown bear for consumption. They rounded out their diets by using harpoons and hooks for fishing.

One very interesting aspect of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture is the way they treated their settlements and structures. They used stone and copper axes to cut down trees to build dwellings and structures, which consisted of wooden framing coated with clay or bran. Their structures were built both single and multi-story, with clay benches and altars. The inside floors and walls contained ornamental paintings in red and white, intended to provide protection from evil spirits. Evidence has been found of individual dwellings, temples, and public structures. These settlements were highly planned and well-constructed, so it is somewhat surprising to learn that the Cucuteni-Tripolye people would ritualistically burn down their settlements every 60-80 years, before moving on to a new area.

Top interior view of a Cucuteni-Tripolye house (model). Wikimedia

Archaeologists and researchers have uncovered thousands of burned structures, statues, tools, vessels, and even cremated remains of humans and animals. Researcher V. Khvoika set forth a theory that these were the “homes of the dead,” perhaps tombs of sorts. However, later theories suggest regular dwellings and structures were simply burned to make room for new structures. The most widely accepted theory today is a combination of these, indicating that over time structures were burned, with tools, vessels, and animals included as a sacrifice to the ancestral spirits. The old structures and fields were left to the deceased ancestors, and those remaining would move on to a new area. Some scholars have theorized that each structure was viewed as an almost “living” entity, with its own life cycle of death and rebirth.

Archaeological finds discovered in Moldova, circa 3650 BC. Public Domain

Characteristic example of Cucuteni-Trypillian pottery. Wikipedia, ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

It is difficult to imagine the culture’s process of burning its settlements to the ground and then rebuilding. While there are strong theories as to why this would take place, it seems as if such a practice would place a somewhat strong burden on the people of the civilization. With rebuilding occurring every 60-80 years, it is likely that every other generation took part in the rebuilding process. Without the tools and materials we have available due to modern technology, this rebuilding would be been a significantly burdensome process, with the need to manually cut down trees, and to erect the new structures. While this is a typical challenge faced by many cultures, the Cucuteni-Tripolye are unique in that they would intentionally destroy functional settlements and then rebuild.

Through research, it has been noted that there have been very few discoveries of funerary objects, and very few cemeteries attributed to the culture. Perhaps the burning of the settlements truly was how the Cucuteni-Tripolye “buried” and honored their dead. Rather than creating a tomb where the deceased could be interred with important objects, the home that the deceased had lived in became their tomb, and they entered the afterlife with the objects they possessed during their earthly life.

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture represents a sophisticated form of ancient life – one where building dwellings and settlements wasn’t merely done for survival, but was performed repeatedly as a cultural practice. Their sophistication as a society is highlighted by their ability to relocate and to rebuild their societies over and over. The true purpose for this conduct may never be known, although it will remain a symbol of the culture’s organized society, and the great lengths they would go to in order to preserve the symbolism of their culture.

Featured image: Reconstruction of Trypillian city Talianki c 4000 B.C. ( Wikimedia Commons )

Sources

The Trypillian People - An Ancient Culture Rich In Symbolism – Trypillian. Available from: http://www.trypillian.com/history.php

Mysterious Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture of Ukraine – Ukraine.com. Available from: http://www.ukraine.com/blog/mysterious-cucuteni-trypillian-culture-of-ukraine

6,000-Year-Old Temple Unearthed in Ukraine – Sci News. Available from: http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/science-temple-trypillian-culture-nebelivka-ukraine-02223.html

Cucuteni-Trypillian culture – Wikipedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Trypillian_culture

The Trypillian culture. Introduction – Trypillia. Available from: http://www.trypillia.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=27:the-trypillian-culture-introduction&catid=44:introduction&Itemid=14

By M R Reese


Religion and ritual of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture

The study of religion and ritual of the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture has provided important insights into the early history of Europe. The Cucuteni-Trypillia culture, which existed in the present-day southeastern European nations of Moldova, Romania, and Ukraine during the Neolithic Age and Copper Age, from approximately 5500 BC to 2750 BC, left behind thousands of settlement ruins containing a wealth of archaeological artifacts attesting to their cultural and technological characteristics. [1] Refer to the main article for a general description of this culture this article deals with its religious and ritualistic aspects.

Some Cucuteni-Trypillia communities have been found that contain a special building located in the center of the settlement, which archaeologists have identified as sacred sanctuaries. Artifacts have been found inside these sanctuaries, some of them having been intentionally buried in the ground within the structure, that are clearly of a religious nature, and have provided insights into some of the beliefs, and perhaps some of the rituals and structure, of the members of this society. Additionally, artifacts of an apparent religious nature have also been found within many domestic Cucuteni-Trypillia homes.

Many of these artifacts are clay figurines or statues. Archaeologists have identified many of these as fetishes or totems, which are believed to be imbued with powers that can help and protect the people who look after them. These Cucuteni-Trypillia figurines have become known popularly as Goddesses, however, this is actually a misnomer from a scientific point of view. There have been so many of these so-called clay Goddesses discovered in Cucuteni-Trypillia sites that many museums in eastern Europe have a sizeable collection of them, and as a result, they have come to represent one of the more readily-identifiable visual markers of this culture to many people.


The rise and fall of the mysterious culture that invented civilisation

AROUND 6200 years ago, farmers living on the eastern fringes of Europe, in what is now Ukraine, did something inexplicable. They left their neolithic villages and moved into a sparsely inhabited area of forest and steppe. There, in an area roughly the size of Belgium between the modern cities of Kiev and Odessa, they congregated at new settlements up to 20 times the size of their old ones.

This enigmatic culture, known as the Cucuteni-Trypillia, predates the earliest known cities in Mesopotamia, a civilisation that spanned part of the Middle East, and in China. It persisted for 800 years, but then, as mysteriously as it had begun, this experiment in civilisation failed. The inhabitants left the lightest of footprints in the landscape, and no human remains have been found. “Not a pinkie, not a tooth,” says palaeogeneticist Alexey Nikitin at Grand Valley State University in Michigan.

This puzzling lack of evidence has fuelled a lively debate about what Nikitin calls the “Dark Ages” of European prehistory. “You talk to five Trypillian archaeologists, you get five different opinions,” he says.

But the data gap hasn’t stifled interest – quite the opposite. Several projects in recent years have tried to make sense of the Trypillian proto-cities. Despite big disagreements, what is emerging is a picture of an early and unique attempt at urbanisation. It may be the key to understanding how modern Europe emerged from the Stone Age – and even throw new light on the emergence of human civilisation in general.

Join author Laura Spinney in the Dolomite mountains:Exploring archaeology, glacial recession, geology and astronomy

Uruk and Tell Brak, which arose in &hellip

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Mysterious Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture of Ukraine

Located near the village of Trypillia in the Obukhiv District of central Ukraine’s Kiev Oblast, the ruins of Trypillia were discovered in 1893 and reported to the 11th Congress of Archeologists in 1897. This became the official date of the discovery of the fascinating Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which is believed to have extended over an area of around 35,000 square kilometers, incorporating parts of present-day Moldova, Romania and Ukraine, between 5400 and 2700 BCE.

Prior to the discovery of Trypillia in the late 19th century – a time when great archeological discoveries were taking place in various parts of the world – it seemed that Eastern Europe had made no notable prehistoric contributions to the development of so-called civilization in the region. But all this changed in 1893 as archeologists started to explore the ruins of these ancient settlements and discovered that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture had established cities to accommodate up to 15,000 inhabitants, being some of the largest settlements in Neolithic European history (7000 BCE-1700BCE). Moreover, there were many such settlements, spaced around three to four kilometers apart, from the Dniester and Dnieper regions to the Carpathian Mountains. Originally referred to only as Trypillian culture, it was later changed to Cucuteni-Trypillian to include the Romanian name for the ruins.

Archeological treasures recovered from these sites include statuettes of both men and women, weapons and other items made of copper and other metals, intricately patterned earthenware and clay building materials. The female statuettes have featureless faces, while the males have oval, elongated faces with prominent noses and deep-set eyes. Some of the statuettes are naked while others are clothed, with the styles of clothing changing over the years, and the females wore their hair in different styles.

The illustrations on decorative items and other artifacts retrieved confirm that the people living in these settlements farmed the land using ploughs, produced handicrafts and had a form of religious belief regarding mankind’s origins and the afterlife. Researchers have noted that there are indications that the inhabitants of these settlements would burn the entire village every 60 to 80 years and then build on top of the ruins. There is no explanation for this practice, but one location in Romania has as many as thirteen levels of foundations that were built upon.

As with many archeological discoveries, there are more questions than answers with regard to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, and archeologists continue to dedicate their time and energies to unraveling the mysteries of the past in this picturesque region of Ukraine.

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7 Rapa Nui


Arguably the most famous of disappearing cultures, the Rapa Nui people were the original inhabitants of Easter Island, leaving us the famed statues that we&rsquove probably all seen. The Polynesian people inhabited the island, which now belongs to Chile, though it&rsquos 3,500 kilometers (2,200 mi) away from the country. Due to its absolute remoteness, how the original Rapa Nui arrived there is as much of a mystery as why they vanished.

So, why did they disappear? Starvation due to excessive resource consumption has been blamed. Destruction of Easter Island&rsquos ecosystem by rats has also been fingered as the culprit. It&rsquos also believed that the Rapa Nui traveled to another remote island, itself thousands of miles away, to start a new settlement. (Descendants of the Rapa Nui of Easter Island live in Chile today.) The truth might well be a combination of the many proposed explanations. [4]


Economy

Throughout the 2,750 years of its existence, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was fairly stable and static however, there were changes that took place. This article addresses some of these changes that have to do with the economic aspects. These include the basic economic conditions of the culture, the development of trade, interaction with other cultures, and the apparent use of barter tokens, an early form of money.

Members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture shared common features with other Neolithic societies, including:

  • An almost nonexistent social stratification
  • Lack of a political elite
  • Rudimentary economy, most likely a subsistence or gift economy
  • Pastoralists and subsistence farmers

Earlier societies of hunter gatherer tribes had no social stratification, and later societies of the Bronze Age had noticeable social stratification, which saw the creation of occupational specialization, the state, and social classes of individuals who were of the elite ruling or religious classes, full-time warriors, and wealthy merchants, contrasted with those individuals on the other end of the economic spectrum who were poor, enslaved, and hungry. In between these two economic models (the hunter gatherer tribes and Bronze Age civilizations) we find the later Neolithic and Eneolithic societies such as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, where the first indications of social stratification began to be found. However, it would be a mistake to overemphasize the impact of social stratification in the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, since it was still (even in its later phases) very much an egalitarian society. And of course, social stratification was just one of the many aspects of what is regarded as a fully established civilized society, which began to appear in the Bronze Age.

Like other Neolithic societies, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture had almost no division of labor. Although this culture’s settlements sometimes grew to become the largest on earth at the time (up to 15,000 people in the largest), there is no evidence that has been discovered of labor specialization. Every household probably had members of the extended family who would work in the fields to raise crops, go to the woods to hunt game and bring back firewood, work by the river to bring back clay or fish, and all of the other duties that would be needed to survive. Contrary to popular belief, the Neolithic people experienced considerable abundance of food and other resources. Since every household was almost entirely self-sufficient, there was very little need for trade. However, there were certain mineral resources that, because of limitations due to distance and prevalence, did form the rudimentary foundation for a trade network that towards the end of the culture began to develop into a more complex system, as is attested to by an increasing number of artifacts from other cultures that have been dated to the latter period.

Toward the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture’s existence (from roughly 3000 BC to 2750 BC), copper traded from other societies (notably, from the Balkans) began to appear throughout the region, and members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture began to acquire skills necessary to use it to create various items. Along with the raw copper ore, finished copper tools, hunting weapons and other artifacts were also brought in from other cultures. This marked the transition from the Neolithic to the Eneolithic, also known as the Chalcolithic or Copper Age. Bronze artifacts began to show up in archaeological sites toward the very end of the culture. The primitive trade network of this society, that had been slowly growing more complex, was supplanted by the more complex trade network of the Proto-Indo-European culture that eventually replaced the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was a society of subsistence farmers. Cultivating the soil (using an ard or scratch plough), harvesting crops and tending livestock was probably the main occupation for most people. Typically for a Neolithic culture, the vast majority of their diet consisted of cereal grains. They cultivated club wheat, oats, rye, proso millet, barley and hemp, which were probably ground and baked as unleavened bread in clay ovens or on heated stones in the home. They also grew peas and beans, apricot, cherry plum and wine grapes – though there is no solid evidence that they actually made wine. There is also evidence that they may have kept bees.

The zooarchaeology of Cucuteni-Trypillian sites indicate that the inhabitants practiced animal husbandry. Their domesticated livestock consisted primarily of cattle, but included smaller numbers of pigs, sheep and goats. There is evidence, based on some of the surviving artistic depictions of animals from Cucuteni-Trypillian sites, that the ox was employed as a draft animal.

Both remains and artistic depictions of horses have been discovered at Cucuteni-Trypillian sites. However, whether these finds are of domesticated or wild horses is debated. Before they were domesticated, humans hunted wild horses for meat. On the other hand, one hypothesis of horse domestication places it in the steppe region adjacent to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture at roughly the same time (4000–3500 BC), so it is possible the culture was familiar with the domestic horse. At this time horses could have been kept both for meat or as a work animal. The direct evidence remains inconclusive.

Hunting supplemented the Cucuteni-Trypillian diet. They used traps to catch their prey, as well as various weapons, including the bow-and-arrow, the spear, and clubs. To help them in stalking game, they sometimes disguised themselves with camouflage. Remains of game species found at Cucuteni-Trypillian sites include red deer, roe deer, aurochs, wild boar, fox and brown bear.

The earliest known salt works in the world is at Poiana Slatinei, near the village of Lunca in Romania. It was first used in the early Neolithic, around 6050 BCE, by the Starčevo culture, and later by the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Pre-Cucuteni period. Evidence from this and other sites indicates that the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture extracted salt from salt-laden spring-water through the process of briquetage. First, the brackish water from the spring was boiled in large pottery vessels, producing a dense brine. The brine was then heated in a ceramic briquetage vessel until all moisture was evaporated, with the remaining crystallized salt adhering to the inside walls of the vessel. Then the briquetage vessel was broken open, and the salt was scraped from the shards.

The provision of salt was a major logistical problem for the largest Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements. As they came to rely upon cereal foods over salty meat and fish, Neolithic cultures had to incorporate supplementary sources of salt into their diet. Similarly, domestic cattle need to be provided with extra sources of salt beyond their normal diet or their milk production is reduced. Cucuteni-Trypillian mega-sites, with a population of likely thousands of people and animals, are estimated to have required between 36,000 and 100,000 kg of salt per year. This was not available locally, and so had to be moved in bulk from distant sources on the western Black Sea coast and in the Carpathian Mountains, probably by river.

Technology and material culture

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture is known by its distinctive settlements, architecture, intricately decorated pottery and anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figurines, which are preserved in archaeological remains. At its peak it was one of the most technologically advanced societies in the world at the time, developing new techniques for ceramic production, housing building and agriculture, and producing woven textiles (although these have not survived and are known indirectly).

In terms of overall size, some of Cucuteni-Trypillian sites, such as Talianki (with a population of 15,000 and covering an area of some 335 hectares) in the province of Uman Raion, Ukraine, are as large as (or perhaps even larger than) the more famous city-states of Sumer in the Fertile Crescent, and these Eastern European settlements predate the Sumerian cities by more than half of a millennium.

Archaeologists have uncovered a large number of artifacts from these ancient ruins. The largest collections of Cucuteni-Trypillian artifacts are to be found in museums in Russia, Ukraine, and Romania, including the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and the Archaeology Museum Piatra Neamţ in Romania. However, smaller collections of artifacts are kept in many local museums scattered throughout the region.

These settlements underwent periodical acts of destruction and re-creation, as they were burned and then rebuilt every 60–80 years. Some scholars have theorized that the inhabitants of these settlements believed that every house symbolized an organic, almost living, entity. Each house, including its ceramic vases, ovens, figurines and innumerable objects made of perishable materials, shared the same circle of life, and all of the buildings in the settlement were physically linked together as a larger symbolic entity. As with living beings, the settlements may have been seen as also having a life cycle of death and rebirth.

The houses of the Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements were constructed in several general ways:

  • Wattle and daub homes.
  • Log homes, called (Ukrainian: площадки ploščadki).
  • Semi-underground homes called Bordei.

Some Cucuteni-Trypillian homes were two-storeys tall, and evidence shows that the members of this culture sometimes decorated the outsides of their homes with many of the same red-ochre complex swirling designs that are to be found on their pottery. Most houses had thatched roofs and wooden floors covered with clay.

Pottery

Most Cucuteni-Trypillian pottery was hand coiled from local clay. Long coils of clay were placed in circles to form first the base and then the walls of the vessel. Once the desired shape and height of the finished product was built up the sides would then be smoothed to create a seamless surface. This technique was the earliest form of pottery shaping and the most common in the Neolithic however, there is some evidence that they also used a primitive type of slow-turning potter’s wheel, an innovation that did not become common in Europe until the Iron Age.

Characteristically vessels were elaborately decorated with swirling patterns and intricate designs. Sometimes decorative incisions were added prior to firing, and sometimes these were filled with colored dye to produce a dimensional effect. In the early period, the colors used to decorate pottery were limited to a rusty-red and white. Later, potters added additional colors to their products and experimented with more advanced ceramic techniques. The pigments used to decorate ceramics were based on iron oxide for red hues, calcium carbonate, iron magnetite and manganese Jacobsite ores for black, and calcium silicate for white. The black pigment, which was introduced during the later period of the culture, was a rare commodity: taken from a few sources and circulated (to a limited degree) throughout the region. The probable sources of these pigments were Iacobeni in Romania for the iron magnetite ore and Nikopol in Ukraine for the manganese Jacobsite ore. No traces of the iron magnetite pigment mined in the easternmost limit of the Cucuteni-Trypillian region have been found to be used in ceramics from the western settlements, suggesting exchange throughout the entire cultural area was limited. In addition to mineral sources, pigments derived from organic materials (including bone and wood) were used to create various colors.

In the late period of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, kilns with a controlled atmosphere were used for pottery production. These kilns were constructed with two separate chambers—the combustion chamber and the filling chamber— separated by a grate. Temperatures in the combustion chamber could reach 1000–1100 °C but were usually maintained at around 900 °C to achieve a uniform and complete firing of vessels.

Toward the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, as copper became more readily available, advances in ceramic technology leveled off as more emphasis was placed on developing metallurgical techniques.

Ceramic figurines

An anthropomorphic ceramic artifact was discovered during an archaeological dig in 1942 on Cetatuia Hill near Bodeşti, Neamţ County, Romania, which became known as the “Cucuteni Frumusica Dance” (after a nearby village of the same name). It was used as a support or stand, and upon its discovery was hailed as a symbolic masterpiece of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. It is believed that the four stylized feminine silhouettes facing inward in an interlinked circle represented a hora, or ritualistic dance. Similar artifacts were later found in Bereşti and Drăgușeni.

Extant figurines excavated at the Cucuteni sites are thought to represent religious artefacts, but their meaning or use is still unknown. Some historians as Gimbutas claim that:

…the stiff nude to be representative of death on the basis that the color white is associated with the bone (that which shows after death). Stiff nudes can be found in Hamangia, Karanovo, and Cucuteni cultures.

Textiles

No examples of Cucuteni-Trypillian textiles have yet been found – preservation of prehistoric textiles is rare and the region does not have a suitable climate. However, impressions of textiles are found on pottery sherds (because the clay was placed there before it was fired). These show that woven fabrics were common in Cucuteni-Trypillian society. Finds of ceramic weights with drilled holes suggest that these were manufactured with a warp weighted loom. It has also been suggested that these weights, especially “disposable” examples made from poor quality clay and inadequately fired, were used to weigh down fishing nets. These would probably have been frequently lost, explaining their inferior quality.

Other pottery sherds with textile impressions, found at Frumusica and Cucuteni, suggest that textiles were also knitted (specifically using a technique known as nalbinding)

Weapons and tools

Cucuteni-Trypillian tools were made from knapped and polished stone, organic materials (bone, antler and horn), and in the later period, copper. Local Miorcani flint was the most common material for stone tools, but a number of other types are known to have been used, including chert, jasper and obsidian. Presumably these tools were hafted with wood, but this is not preserved. Weapons are rare but not unknown, implying the culture was relatively peaceful.

Wheels

Very few researchers, e.g., Asko Parpola, an Indologist at the University of Helsinki in Finland, believe that the CT-culture used the wheel with wagons. However, only miniature models of animals on 4 wheels have been found, and they date to the first half of the fourth millennium BC. Such models are often thought to have been children’s toys nevertheless, the do convey the idea that objects could be pulled on wheels. Up to now there is no whatever evidence for wheels used with real wagons.


4. Clovis

A prehistoric Native American people, the Clovis culture dates back to 10,000 BC. Centered in southern and central plains of North America they are archeologically recognized by chipped flint points called Clovis points.

They used these points on the end of spears to hunt big game like mammoth and bison and small game like deer and rabbits. The Clovis people were the first human inhabitants of the New World and are considered the ancestors of all North and South American indigenous cultures. Many scholars believe that they crossed the Beringia land bridge from Siberia to Alaska during the ice age and then headed south to warmer climates.

Where did they go?

There are several theories around the disappearance of the Clovis culture. The first states that a decrease in megafauna along with less mobility in their culture led them to branch off and form new cultural groups, like the Folsom culture. Another theory is that the mammoth and other species became extinct due to over hunting, leaving the Clovis without a viable food source. The final theory revolves around a comet that crashed to the earth around the Great Lakes region and significantly affected the Clovis culture.


THE SHORTEST HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURAL MODEL MAKING

From old ages the scale image is a mean to verify and validate the architectural idea on its way to reality. It is used to physically represent not only exterior but the structure of an object. This three-dimensional vision of an object is a tool to find better and the best solution. This creative function of a model corresponds with its key role of a communicative mean, a clear and convincing expression of space reality. This is proved everywhere in the world design history.


Economy [ editar | editar código ]

Throughout the 2,750 years of its existence, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was fairly stable and static however, there were changes that took place. This article addresses some of these changes that have to do with the economic aspects. These include the basic economic conditions of the culture, the development of trade, interaction with other cultures, and the apparent use of barter tokens, an early form of money.

Members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture shared common features with other Neolithic societies, including:

Earlier societies of hunter gatherer tribes had no social stratification, and later societies of the Bronze Age had noticeable social stratification, which saw the creation of occupational specialization, the state, and social classes of individuals who were of the elite ruling or religious classes, full-time warriors, and wealthy merchants, contrasted with those individuals on the other end of the economic spectrum who were poor, enslaved, and hungry. In between these two economic models (the hunter gatherer tribes and Bronze Age civilizations) we find the later Neolithic and Eneolithic societies such as the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, where the first indications of social stratification began to be found. However, it would be a mistake to overemphasize the impact of social stratification in the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, since it was still (even in its later phases) very much an egalitarian society. And of course, social stratification was just one of the many aspects of what is regarded as a fully established civilized society, which began to appear in the Bronze Age. ⎠]

Like other Neolithic societies, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture had almost no division of labor. Although this culture's settlements sometimes grew to become the largest on earth at the time (up to 15,000 people in the largest), there is no evidence that has been discovered of labor specialization. Every household probably had members of the extended family who would work in the fields to raise crops, go to the woods to hunt game and bring back firewood, work by the river to bring back clay or fish, and all of the other duties that would be needed to survive. Contrary to popular belief, the Neolithic people experienced considerable abundance of food and other resources. Α] Since every household was almost entirely self-sufficient, there was very little need for trade. However, there were certain mineral resources that, because of limitations due to distance and prevalence, did form the rudimentary foundation for a trade network that towards the end of the culture began to develop into a more complex system, as is attested to by an increasing number of artifacts from other cultures that have been dated to the latter period. Β]

Toward the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture's existence (from roughly 3000 BC to 2750 BC), copper traded from other societies (notably, from the Balkans) began to appear throughout the region, and members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture began to acquire skills necessary to use it to create various items. Along with the raw copper ore, finished copper tools, hunting weapons and other artifacts were also brought in from other cultures. Α] This marked the transition from the Neolithic to the Eneolithic, also known as the Chalcolithic or Copper Age. Bronze artifacts began to show up in archaeological sites toward the very end of the culture. The primitive trade network of this society, that had been slowly growing more complex, was supplanted by the more complex trade network of the Proto-Indo-European culture that eventually replaced the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture. Α]