Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane
The Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first Japanese-designed aircraft to enter production for the Japanese Navy, and was in service into the late 1920s.
During the First World War Lt Chikuhei Nakajima (later to found his own aircraft company) worked at the Yokosho naval arsenal, where he produced a number of experimental seaplanes. During 1917 Lt Kishichi Umakoshi, one of his assistants, began work on a design for a new reconnaissance seaplane.
The Ro-go Ko-gata was a three bay biplane powered by a single engine. It had short twin floats and a third float under the tail. The structure was wooden, with a fabric covering. The wings could be folded to the rear for storage. Very early aircraft were powered by a 140hp Salmson engine. This was replaced by a 200hp Salmson engine on some of the aircraft produced at Yokosho. During the Yokosho production run the engine was changed again, to a 200hp Mitsubishi type Hi licence-built Hispano engine, and this was used on the majority of aircraft.
The first prototype was ready by the autumn of 1917. Flight tests began at the start of 1918 and the new aircraft proved to be superior to any then in Japanese Naval Service (a mix of imported designs), in particular a number of Farman Pushers.
The first four aircraft were built at Yokosuka in 1918. They were then accepted for Naval Service, with the designation Ro-go Ko-gata. In the system in use at the time this made it a Reconnaissance aircraft (Ro-go), while Ko-gata indicated that it was the first Yokosuka reconnaissance aircraft to be accepted (effectively the equivalent of Model A).
A total of 218 aircraft were built. Yokosho produced thirty-two in 1917-21, with a mix of Salmson and Mitsubishi engines. Aichi produced eighty between 1920 and 1924, all with the Mitsubishi engines. Nakajima produced 106, their first Naval aircraft, between 1920 and 1925, again all with the Mitsubishi engine.
In April 1919 three of the early production aircraft had one seat removed and extra fuel tanks installed. They were then used for a record breaking flight. This involved a course that took them from Oppama to Kure, then to Chinhae near Pusan in Korea, then to Sasebo and finally back to Oppama. The record came on the final leg when Sub-Lt Kanjo Akashiba flew 808 miles in 11hr 35min.
The aircraft was in service from 1921 until 1926, operating alongside the Navy's Hansa Type Reconnaissance Seaplane. Most were then released for civil use, but some did remain in service until 1928.
Engine: Mitsubishi Type Hi (Hispane-Suiza E) nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engine
Span: 51ft 6in
Length: 33ft 4in
Empty weight: 2,358lb
Loaded weight: 3,589lb
Max speed: 96.72mph
Climb Rate: 4min to 1,640ft
Range: 483 miles
Endurance: 5 hours
Armament: One dorsal mounted 7.7mm machine gun
The Yokosuka E1Y was a Japanese floatplane of the 1920s. A single-engined biplane that was designed and developed by the Yokosuka Naval Air Technical Arsenal as a reconnaissance aircraft for the Imperial Japanese Navy, 320 were built as the Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane, entering service in 1925 and remained in operational service until 1932.
The beginnings of Japanese naval aviation were established in 1912, with the creation of a Commission on Naval Aeronautical Research (Kaigun Kokūjutsu Kenkyūkai) under the authority of the Technical Department. The commission was charged with the promotion of aviation technology and training for the navy. Initially was focus was in non-rigid airships but it quickly moved on to the development of winged and powered aircraft. Ώ] That year, the commission decided to purchase foreign winged aircraft and to send junior officers abroad to learn how to fly and maintain them. ΐ] The navy purchased two seaplanes from the Glenn Curtiss factory in Hammondsport, New York, and two Maurice Farman seaplanes from France. ΐ] To establish a cadre of naval aviators and technicians, the navy also dispatched three officers to Hammondsport and two to France for training and instruction. ΐ] After their return to Japan at the end of 1912, two of the newly trained naval aviators made the first flights at Oppama on Yokosuka Bay, one in a Curtiss seaplane, the other in a Maurice Farman. Α]
In 1912, the Royal Navy had also informally established its own flying branch, the Royal Naval Air Service. The Japanese admirals, whose own Navy had been modeled on the Royal Navy and whom they admired, themselves proposed their own Naval Air Service. The Japanese Navy had also observed technical developments in other countries and saw that the airplane had potential. Within a year, the Imperial Japanese navy had begun the operational use of aircraft. In 1913, the following year, a Navy transport ship, Wakamiya Maru was converted into a seaplane carrier capable of carrying two assembled and two disassembled seaplanes. Α] Wakamiya also participated in the naval maneuvers off Sasebo that year.
Siege of Tsingtao
On 23 August 1914, as a result of its treaty with Great Britain, Japan declared war on Germany. The Japanese, together with a token British force, blockaded then laid siege to the German colony of Kiaochow and its administrative capital Tsingtao on the Shandong peninsula. During the siege, starting from September, four Maurice Farman seaplanes (two active and two reserve) on board Wakamiya conducted reconnaissance and aerial bombardments on German positions and ships. The aircraft had crude bombsights and carried six to ten bombs that had been converted from shells, and were released through metal tubes on each side of the cockpit. Β] On 5 September, during the first successful operation, two Farman seaplanes dropped several bombs on the Bismarck battery, the main German fortifications in Tsingtao. The bombs landed harmlessly in the mud, but the aircraft were able to confirm that SMS Emden was not at Tsingtao, this was intelligence of major importance to Allied naval command. Β] On 30 September Wakamiya was damaged by a mine and later sent back to Japan for repairs. But the seaplanes, by transferring on to the shore, continued to be used against the German defenders until their surrender on 7 November 1914. Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched aerial raids in history [N 1] and was in effect the first aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. [N 2] By the end of the siege the aircraft had conducted 50 sorties and dropped 200 bombs, although damage to German defenses was light. Δ]
Further developments (1916–1918)
In 1916, the Commission on Naval Aeronautical Research was disbanded and the funds supporting it were reallocated for the establishment of three naval air units (hikotai) which would fall under the authority of the Naval Affairs Bureau of the Navy Ministry. The first unit was established at Yokosuka in April 1916, however, the lack of a specific naval air policy in these early years was made apparent by the fact that the Yokosuka Air Group operated with the fleet only once a year when it was transported briefly to whatever training area the IJN was then using for maneuvers. Α] Japanese naval aviation, though, continued to make progress. In 1917, officers at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal designed and built the first Japanese seaplane, the Ro-Go Ko-gata reconnaissance seaplane, which was much more useful at sea and much safer than the Maurice Farman aircraft that the navy had been using up to that point. Α] The aircraft was eventually mass-produced and became the mainstay of the navy's air arm until the mid-1920s. Japanese factories by the end of the war, in increasing numbers, were beginning to turn out engines and fuselages based on foreign designs. Α] A major expansion in Japanese naval air strength was part of the 1918 naval expansion program which made possible a new air group and a naval air station at Sasebo. In 1918, the IJN secured land around Lake Kasumigaura in Ibaraki Prefecture, northeast of Tokyo. The following year, a naval air station for both land and sea aircraft was established, and subsequently, naval air training was transferred to Kasumigaura, from Yokosuka. After the establishment of a naval air training unit at Kasumigaura, the air station became the principal flight training center for the navy. Α]
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Con lo sviluppo dell'arma aerea e la conseguente necessità delle forze armate dell'Impero del Giappone di adeguare le proprie potenzialità militari a quanto era in corso in quegli anni all'estero, nel 1913 le autorità militari della Marina Imperiale decisero di coinvolgere l'arsenale di Yokosuka nella produzione dei velivoli che andarono a costituire la propria flotta aerea, costruendo inizialmente molti idrovolanti di concezione francese, sviluppati dalla Société des avions Henri & Maurice Farman, e statunitense, sviluppati dalla Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company.  In seguitò continuò a produrre modelli su licenza, tra cui molti Farman e diversi Short Type 184 di concezione britannica, ma iniziando a sfruttare l'esperienza acquisita per dare inizio allo sviluppo di progetti autonomi dei quali molti concretizzatisi in prototipi. 
Nel 1917 Chikuhei Nakajima, capo progettista della divisione aeronautica dell'Arsenale di Yokosuka, avviò lo sviluppo di un idrovolante da ricognizione di nuovo disegno. Il velivolo riproponeva l'impostazione classica dei modelli che l'avevano preceduto, idro di tipo "a scarponi", monomotore a velatura biplana dalla cellula con struttura in legno ricoperta da tela trattata. Caratterizzato dalla fusoliera a due abitacoli aperti e separati posizionati in tandem, uno destinato al pilota ed il secondo all'osservatore-mitragliere, era collegata ai due grandi galleggianti tramite un'incastellatura tubolare ventrale. Le ali, collegate tra loro da una tripla coppia di montanti per lato integrati da tiranti in cavetto d'acciaio, potevano essere ripiegate all'indietro per facilitare le operazioni di hangaraggio ed integravano, al di sotto dell'ala inferiore, due piccoli galleggianti, uno per lato, con funzione equilibratrice.
Il prototipo, equipaggiato con un motore radiale Salmson raffreddato a liquido da 140 hp (104 kW), venne portato in volo per la prima volta all'inizio del 1918. Le prove di volo che si susseguirono confermarono le aspettative di Nakajima rivelando buone prestazioni generali e, valutato positivamente dalla commissione della Marina Imperiale, venne avviato alla produzione in serie con la designazione Ro-go Ko-gata.   
Inizialmente motorizzato con un Salmson da 200 hp (149 kW), il Ro-go Ko-gata venne in seguito e per la maggior parte degli esemplari equipaggiato con l'8 cilindri a V raffreddato a liquido Mitsubishi Hi, una versione prodotta localmente su licenza dalla Mitsubishi dell'Hispano-Suiza 8. 
Al termine della produzione, cessata nel 1924  , il totale degli esemplari costruiti ammontò a 218 unità,  32 realizzati dall'Arsenale di Yokosuka, 80 dalla Aichi e 106 dalla Nakajima Hikōki KK  , diventando così il primo modello tra quelli sviluppati e costruiti in Giappone ad essere prodotto in grande serie per la Marina Imperiale giapponese. 
Il Ro-go Ko-gata, assieme all'Hansa-Brandenburg W.29 prodotto localmente su licenza, entrò in servizio nei reparti da ricognizione aerea della Marina Imperiale nel corso del 1918 rimpiazzando progressivamente gli oramai obsoleti modelli Farman a configurazione spingente. Tre dei primi esemplari consegnati vennero in seguito modificati per consentire missioni a lungo raggio sostituendo uno dei due abitacoli con un serbatoio di combustibile supplementare. In questa configurazione, il 20 aprile 1919, uno degli esemplari riuscì a percorrere l'allora distanza record di 1 300 km (702 nmi) nel tempo di 11 h 35 min. 
Il Ro-go Ko-gata, che nel 1923 in base a nuove disposizioni assunse la nuova designazione idrovolante da ricognizione tipo Yokosho, rimase in servizio in larga scala fino al 1926.   Una volta radiati dal servizio molti esemplari vennero venduti sul mercato dall'aviazione civile e finirono la loro carriera volando nel ruolo di aereo postale per il quale furono impiegati fino al 1928.  
The air arsenal's roots go back to 1869 when the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) established a naval arsenal at Yokosuka, about 13 miles south of Yokohama on Tokyo Bay. The arsenal provided ship building, repair and replenishment to the Japanese Navy. It was also a storage depot where munitions and other assorted supplies were brought as they were purchased. [ 2 ]
When a number of foreign aircraft were purchased for evaluation, the Navy brought them to the arsenal for processing. The arsenal assembled the aircraft from their shipping boxes, and when assembled, they were flown by the pilots who had been sent abroad for flying lessons and evaluate the aircraft flown. [ 2 ]
Modifications to these aircraft were done as weaknesses were found, or when an improvement was incorporated. To facilitate this work, the IJN established the Aeroplane Factory, Ordnance Department at the arsenal's torpedo factory in May 1913. [ 2 ]
The next year, the first acronym was used was Yokosho, a contraction of "Yokosuka Kaigun Kōshō" (Yokosuka Naval Arsenal). The arsenal was renamed "Kaigun Kōkū Shiken-sho" (Naval Establishment for Aeronautical Research) in December 1919. The name "Kaigun Gijutsu Kenkyūsho" (Naval Technical Research Institute) was assigned by April, 1923, when the arsenal was moved to Tsukiji with several other Naval support units. The entire Tsukiji facility was destroyed in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake. Several names were used when the navy began establishment of the arsenal. Research was started again in 1924 when several aircraft were evaluated. Under the command of the newly formed Naval Air Headquarters, the Kaigun Kokusho (Naval Air Arsenal) was formed at Yokosuka on 1 April, 1932. A large amount of draftsmen and Designers were transferred from the Hiro Naval Arsenal, ending aircraft production there. [ 2 ]
Organization Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_section_13
Main article: Organization of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_182
The elite of the pilots were the carrier-based air groups (Kōkūtai, later called koku sentai) whose size (from a handful to 80 or 90 aircraft) was dependent on both the mission and type of aircraft carrier that they were on. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_183
Fleet carriers had three types of aircraft: fighters, level/torpedo planes, and dive bombers. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_184
Smaller carriers tended to have only two types, fighters and level/torpedo planes. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_185
The carrier-based Kōkūtai numbered over 1,500 pilots and just as many aircraft at the beginning of the Pacific War. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_186
The IJN also maintained a shore-based system of naval air fleets called Koku Kantai and area air fleets called homen kantai containing mostly twin-engine bombers and seaplanes. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_187
The senior command was the Eleventh Naval Air Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Nishizō Tsukahara. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_188
Land based aircraft provided the bulk of Japan's naval aviation up to the eve of World War II. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_189
Each naval air fleet contained one or more naval air flotillas (commanded by Rear Admirals) each with two or more naval air groups. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_190
Each naval air group consisted of a base unit and 12 to 36 aircraft, plus four to 12 aircraft in reserve. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_191
Each naval air group consisted of several Squadrons (飛行隊, Hikōtai) of nine, 12 or 16 aircraft this was the main IJN Air Service combat unit and was equivalent to a squadron (中隊, Chutai) in the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_192
Each hikotai was commanded by a Lieutenant (j.g. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_193
), Warrant Officer, or experienced Chief Petty Officer, while most pilots were non-commissioned officers. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_194
There were usually four sections in each hikotai, each section (小隊, shōtai) with three or four aircraft by mid-1944 it was common for a shotai to have four aircraft. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_195
There were over 90 naval air groups at the start of the Pacific War, each assigned either a name or a number. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_196
The named naval air groups were usually linked to a particular navy air command or a navy base. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_197
They were usually numbered when they left Japan. Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service_sentence_198
1. Origins. (Происхождение)
The Japanese Imperial Navy in the recovery period has acquired its first submarines during the Russo-Japanese war on December 12, 1904 when they arrived in sections at the Yokohama shipyard. The court was purchased from a relatively new American company, Electric boat, and was fully assembled and ready for combat operations by August 1905. However, hostilities with Russia coming to an end by that date, and no submarines in the fighting during the war.
Submarines electric boat sold to Japan were based on the design of Holland type Viis similar to the American plunger -class submarines. Five imported Hollands were originally built at the fore river ship and engine company in Quincy, Massachusetts, under the leadership of Buschs for electric boat company back in August–October 1904. They were transported by freighter from Seattle, Washington in a knockdown disassembled in Japan, and then gathered Arthur Leopold Busch at the Yokosuka naval Arsenal, which was after Japans largest naval shipyard, to become hulls No. 1 through 5 and received the designation Type 1 submarines of the Japanese fleet.
Frank cable, an electrician who was working for Isaac rice electrodynamic and storage, as well as rice boat, arrived some six months after Busch, training the recovery period in the work of the newly commissioned vessels.
In 1904 Kawasaki dockyard company purchased plans for a modified version directly from Holland, and built two boats hulls No. 6 and 7, with the help of two American engineers, chase and Herbert, who had been assistants to Holland. Kawasaki-type submarines displaced 63 or 95 tons when submerged, and measured 73 and 84 feet 22 and 26 In total length m, respectively. both vessels measured 7 feet 2.1 m beam. This contrasts with the original five imported Hollands-type submarines, which arrived in the same year, more than 100 tons underwater, 67 20 feet Total length m 11 ft 3.4 m width. Type Kawasaki #6 and #7 submarines got extra speed and reduced fuel consumption by 1 ⁄ 4. However both boats could launch only one 18-inch 460 mm torpedoes, and each consisted of 14 sailors, whereas the imported Holland-type submarines could fire two torpedoes and could be operated by 13 sailors. This new type was designated the submarine type 6 Imperial Japanese Navy, and was used mainly for testing purposes.
In Kaigun Holland #6 was launched at Kobe on 28 September, 1905 and was completed six months in Kure as the first submarine built in Japan. She sank during a training dive in the Bay of Hiroshima on 15 APR 1910. Although the water was only 58 feet 18 m in depth, there is no provision for the crew to escape while submerged. The commander, Lieutenant Tsutomu Sakuma, patiently wrote a description of the efforts of the sailors to bring the boat to the surface as their oxygen supply ran out. All the sailors were later found dead in their duty stations when the submarine was raised the next day. The sailors were recognized as heroes for their calm performance of their duties until death, and this submarine has been preserved as a memorial in Kure until the end of the Second world war.
Although the capabilities of these first submarines were never tested in combat during the Russo-Japanese war, the first submarine squadron was soon formed at Kure naval district of the inland sea. After the war, the Japanese government followed the development of submarines of the Royal Navy, and bought two British C-class submarines directly from Vickers, with additional three sets of built in Kure naval Arsenal. These became respectively the Japanese ha-1 class and the GA-3 class submarines. Were later two more vessels, forming ha-7 class, built at Kure naval Arsenal.
In 1909, the first submarine tender, Karasaki, was commissioned.
Japan, along with other allies, to a large extent based on Germanys Guerre de course Commerce raiding operations during the First World War, and their success the submarine fiber-reinforced Japans willingness to develop this weapon, resulting in eighteen ocean-going submarines, being included in the 1917 expansion program. At the end of the First World War, Japan received nine German submarines as reparations, which allowed her and other allies to accelerate their technological development in the interwar period.
Первые самолеты поступили на вооружение в 1926 году в корабельные эскадрильи боевых кораблей и гидроавианосца IJN Notoro. В 1931 году, во время Шанхайского инцидента самолеты E1Y участвовали в блокировании китайского побережья с гидроавианосца IJN Notoro. К началу Второй японо-китайской войны 1937-1945 гг. морально устаревшие самолеты не участвовали в боевых действиях, однако они сохранились на некоторых боевых кораблях.
Много списанных разведчиков были переделаны в гражданские пассажирские и транспортные самолеты. Была очень популярна пассажирская версия на 3-4 места и новым двигателем Napier Lion II мощностью 450 л.с. Наибольшее количество таких разведчиков эксплуатировалось в компании Nippon Koku Yuso Kenkyusho в Сакаи, недалеко от Осаки. Они использовались в качестве экскурсионных, рекламных и почтовых. Последние летали в начале Второй Мировой войны.