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Gordon Campbell

Gordon Campbell


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Gorden Sunderland Campbell was born on 5th July 1905. After serving as a US Army colonel, he was a Central Intelligence Agency contract agent who was based at the CIA's Miami station, of JM/WAVE. According to Bradley E. Ayers, Campbell was a close associate of Theodore Shackley.

Rudy Enders, a retired CIA officer, claims that Campbell helped the agency ferry anti-Castro guerrillas across the straits of Florida.

In a letter sent to John R. Tunheim in 1994, Bradley E. Ayers claimed that nine people based at JM/WAVE "have intimate operational knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the assassination" of John F. Kennedy. Ayers named Gorden Campbell, Grayston Lynch, Theodore Shackley, Felix Rodriguez, Thomas Clines, David Morales, Rip Robertson, Edward Roderick and Tony Sforza as the men who had this information.

Bradley E. Ayers was interviewed by Jeremy Gunn of the Assassination Records Review Board in May, 1995. According to Gunn: “Ayers claims to have found in the course of his private investigative work, a credible witness who can put David Morales inside the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on the night of June 5, 1968 (RFK’s assassination)."

While researching a documentary, Shane O'Sullivan discovered a news film of the Ambassador Hotel on the day Robert F. Kennedy was assassinated. Bradley E. Ayers and other people who knew them, identified David Sanchez Morales, Gordon Campbell and George Joannides as being three men in the hotel that day. An article about this story appeared in The Guardian and on BBC Newsnight on 20th November, 2006.

David Talbot and Jefferson Morley researched this story in 2007. They reported that: "Gordon Campbell, it turns out, was not the deputy station chief in the CIA's Miami operation, as O'Sullivan reported. He was a yachtsman and Army colonel who served as a contract agent helping the agency ferry anti-Castro guerrillas across the straits of Florida, according to Rudy Enders, a retired CIA officer, and two other people who knew him. He could not have been at the scene of Bobby's Kennedy's assassination on June 5, 1968 because he died in 1962.... Campbell's death certificate, which identified him as a "maritime adviser," states he passed away on Sept. 19, 1962."

I make reference to your letter of February 23d and my subsequent communications with your staff in preparation for our meeting which is scheduled for 10.00 CDT this morning. I appreciate the opportunity to visit with you concerning matters relating to the assassination of President Kennedy and your appointment as a member of the board that will oversee the release of documents pertaining thereto.

Over the past several months I have furnished your staff with details of my background and other materials which I trust have provided you with some perspective for the information I hope to personally convey. Assuming you have read or been briefed on the essence of this history, I will not dwell upon it here. However, I take this opportunity to convey copies of two documents which I recently received that relate directly to our discussion of this date. They are self-explanatory.

With the context of our meeting hopefully established, I wish to call your attention to the following specifics which I urge you and the Board to be alert for and to pursue within the framework of your mandate. These areas of interest and individual identifications are recommended as adf.rect result of my experience with the CIA/JMWAVE Miami station during the period immediately preceding and following the death of JFK and my synthesis of other information developed since that experience.

I believe the following living individuals have intimate operational knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the assassination and the possible role of the persons and/or operations listed in the paragraph which follows:

Theodore Shackley - Chief of Station, JMWAVE Robert Wall - Deputy Chief of Operations, JMWAVE

Grayson Lynch - Contract paramilitary trainer/agent, JMWAVE

Felix Rodriguez - Contract paramilitary agent (Cuban born), JMWAVE

Thomas Clines - CIA paramilitary case officer, JMWAVE

Above named persons with reference to:

Gordon Campbell (current status unknown) - Deputy Chief of Station, JMWAVE

David Morales (deceased) - Chief of Operations, JMWAVE

"Rip" Robertson (deceased) - Contract paramilitary agent JMWAVE

Edward Roderick (current status unknown) - U. S. Army Major, explosives expert/Corp of Engineers, attached to JMWAVE and later CIA employee upon retirement from Army

Tony Sforza (deceased) - Contract paramilitary agent, JMWAVE

Operation (code name) "Red Cross" - JMWAVE, Fall 1963

Further, I invite your attention to the forthcoming issue of Vanity Fair Magazine (October issue) which I am advised will contain an article by Tony Summers, a highly credible journalist/author (CONSPIRACY) that will offer certain revelations complimenting the recommendations made in this communication.

I know for a fact that Summers has been diligently pursuing lines of inquiry that may be relevant to the work of the Board and may be useful in unscrambling and evaluating the JFK related documents produced by the CIA and other government agencies.

I hope the information I've provided is helpful to the Board and I remain prepared to testify under oath to any aspect of my activities should that be desired.

The purpose of this memo is to give you background on who Brad Ayers is and the story he tells. His story is accepted to differing degrees, depending on who one talks to, but the basics of his story check out, according to our research.

Ayers was an infantry officer in the U.S. Army during the early 1960's, specializing in paramilitary training. In early 1963, (records checks indicate it was in early April) Ayers was "loaned" by the Army to the CIA, which assigned him to the JMWAVE station. Ayers' job was to train Cuban exiles and prepare them for an invasion of Cuba. This much of his story is borne out by checks of his military and CIA files.

From here, the veracity of Ayers' claims are less easy to discern. He claims to have seen many figures at JMWAVE who were not there, according to the official record; these include Johnny Roselli and William Harvey (former Task Force W /SAS chief for CIA, who was removed from that position by Kennedy after Harvey overstepped his authority after the Missile Crisis). Ayers also claims to have gone on several raiding missions with his proteges, and to have come under fire from Castro's forces in the summer of 1963. This is significant because according to the official record, all government sanctioned action against Castro had ceased by that point.

Ayers says that many of his colleagues at the JMWAVE station built up a strong resentment of President Kennedy, and says that he believes several of them to have played roles in the assassination. Foremost among these, he says, was David Morales, the operations officer for CIA in Miami.

The HSCA interviewed Ayers, and performed searches for his records. In doing so, they discovered five sealed envelopes in his file, which HSCA staff was not allowed access to. The envelopes have ben the source of some speculation among those in the research community who believe Ayers' story.

On May 12, I interviewed Ayers at his home outside of St. Paul, Minnesota. At that point, the questions were based on information obtained from open sources only, as few of the staff had their clearances yet.

The role and activities of Deputy Chief of Station, Gordon Campbell: (this was stricken from the original manuscript) this individual played a major behind-the-scenes role at and outside the JMWAVE station. While he was Shackley's deputy, he also appeared to function with a good deal of independence and have his own agenda. He became the author's case officer for the Elliot Key refinery raid which seemed to evolve beyond the station's normal paramilitary/operational structure. Campbell was unique, physically impressive, polished, had extensive background and experience in CIA's history in anti-Castro operations, particularly maritime. It is believed he had an ONI-naval background, had a somewhat flamboyant lifestyle and was known as Mr Bishop by some of the station.

At first, it seems an open-and-shut case. On June 5 1968, Robert Kennedy wins the California Democratic primary and is set to challenge Richard Nixon for the White House. After midnight, he finishes his victory speech at the Ambassador hotel in Los Angeles and is shaking hands with kitchen staff in a crowded pantry when 24-year-old Palestinian Sirhan Sirhan steps down from a tray-stacker with a "sick, villainous smile" on his face and starts firing at Kennedy with an eight-shot revolver.

As Kennedy lies dying on the pantry floor, Sirhan is arrested as the lone assassin. He carries the motive in his shirt-pocket (a clipping about Kennedy's plans to sell bombers to Israel) and notebooks at his house seem to incriminate him. But the autopsy report suggests Sirhan could not have fired the shots that killed Kennedy. Witnesses place Sirhan's gun several feet in front of Kennedy, but the fatal bullet is fired from one inch behind. And more bullet-holes are found in the pantry than Sirhan's gun can hold, suggesting a second gunman is involved. Sirhan's notebooks show a bizarre series of "automatic writing" - "RFK must die RFK must be killed - Robert F Kennedy must be assassinated before 5 June 68" - and even under hypnosis, he has never been able to remember shooting Kennedy. He recalls "being led into a dark place by a girl who wanted coffee", then being choked by an angry mob. Defence psychiatrists conclude he was in a trance at the time of the shooting and leading psychiatrists suggest he may have be a hypnotically programmed assassin.

Three years ago, I started writing a screenplay about the assassination of Robert Kennedy, caught up in a strange tale of second guns and "Manchurian candidates" (as the movie termed brainwashed assassins). As I researched the case, I uncovered new video and photographic evidence suggesting that three senior CIA operatives were behind the killing. I did not buy the official ending that Sirhan acted alone, and started dipping into the nether-world of "assassination research", crossing paths with David Sanchez Morales, a fearsome Yaqui Indian.

Morales was a legendary figure in CIA covert operations. According to close associate Tom Clines, if you saw Morales walking down the street in a Latin American capital, you knew a coup was about to happen. When the subject of the Kennedys came up in a late-night session with friends in 1973, Morales launched into a tirade that finished: "I was in Dallas when we got the son of a bitch and I was in Los Angeles when we got the little bastard." From this line grew my odyssey into the spook world of the 60s and the secrets behind the death of Bobby Kennedy.

Working from a Cuban photograph of Morales from 1959, I viewed news coverage of the assassination to see if I could spot the man the Cubans called El Gordo - The Fat One. Fifteen minutes in, there he was, standing at the back of the ballroom, in the moments between the end of Kennedy's speech and the shooting. Thirty minutes later, there he was again, casually floating around the darkened ballroom while an associate with a pencil moustache took notes.

The source of early research on Morales was Bradley Ayers, a retired US army captain who had been seconded to JM-Wave, the CIA's Miami base in 1963, to work closely with chief of operations Morales on training Cuban exiles to run sabotage raids on Castro. I tracked Ayers down to a small town in Wisconsin and emailed him stills of Morales and another guy I found suspicious - a man who is pictured entering the ballroom from the direction of the pantry moments after the shooting, clutching a small container to his body, and being waved towards an exit by a Latin associate.

Ayers' response was instant. He was 95% sure that the first figure was Morales and equally sure that the other man was Gordon Campbell, who worked alongside Morales at JM-Wave in 1963 and was Ayers' case officer shortly before the JFK assassination.

I put my script aside and flew to the US to interview key witnesses for a documentary on the unfolding story. In person, Ayers positively identified Morales and Campbell and introduced me to David Rabern, a freelance operative who was part of the Bay of Pigs invasion force in 1961 and was at the Ambassador hotel that night. He did not know Morales and Campbell by name but saw them talking to each other out in the lobby before the shooting and assumed they were Kennedy's security people. He also saw Campbell around police stations three or four times in the year before Robert Kennedy was shot.

This was odd. The CIA had no domestic jurisdiction and Morales was stationed in Laos in 1968. With no secret service protection for presidential candidates in those days, Kennedy was guarded by unarmed Olympic decathlete champion Rafer Johnson and football tackler Rosey Grier - no match for an expert assassination team.

Trawling through microfilm of the police investigation, I found further photographs of Campbell with a third figure, standing centre-stage in the Ambassador hotel hours before the shooting. He looked Greek, and I suspected he might be George Joannides, chief of psychological warfare operations at JM-Wave. Joannides was called out of retirement in 1978 to act as the CIA liaison to the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) investigating the death of John F Kennedy.

Ed Lopez, now a respected lawyer at Cornell University, came into close contact with Joann-des when he was a young law student working for the committee. We visit him and show him the photograph and he is 99% sure it is Joannides. When I tell him where it was taken, he is not surprised: "If these guys decided you were bad, they acted on it.

We move to Washington to meet Wayne Smith, a state department official for 25 years who knew Morales well at the US embassy in Havana in 1959-60. When we show him the video in the ballroom, his response is instant: "That's him, that's Morales." He remembers Morales at a cocktail party in Buenos Aires in 1975, saying Kennedy got what was coming to him. Is there a benign explanation for his presence? For Kennedy's security, maybe? Smith laughs. Morales is the last person you would want to protect Bobby Kennedy, he says. He hated the Kennedys, blaming their lack of air support for the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961.

We meet Clines in a hotel room near CIA headquarters. He does not want to go on camera and brings a friend, which is a little unnerving. Clines remembers "Dave" fondly. The guy in the video looks like Morales but it is not him, he says: "This guy is fatter and Morales walked with more of a slouch and his tie down." To me, the guy in the video does walk with a slouch and his tie is down.

Clines says he knew Joannides and Campbell and it is not them either, but he fondly remembers Ayers bringing snakes into JM-Wave to scare the secretaries and seems disturbed at Smith's identification of Morales. He does not discourage our investigation and suggests others who might be able to help. A seasoned journalist cautions that he would expect Clines "to blow smoke", and yet it seems his honest opinion.

As we leave Los Angeles, I tell the immigration officer that I am doing a story on Bobby Kennedy. She has seen the advertisements for the new Emilio Estevez movie about the assassination, Bobby. "Who do you think did it? I think it was the Mob," she says before I can answer.

"I definitely think it was more than one man," I say, discreetly.

Morales died of a heart attack in 1978, weeks before he was to be called before the HSCA. Joannides died in 1990. Campbell may still be out there somewhere, in his early 80s. Given the positive identifications we have gathered on these three, the CIA and the Los Angeles Police Department need to explain what they were doing there. Lopez believes the CIA should call in and interview everybody who knew them, disclose whether they were on a CIA operation and, if not, why they were there that night.

Today would have been Robert Kennedy's 81st birthday. The world is crying out for a compassionate leader like him. If dark forces were behind his elimination, it needs to be investigated.

On November 20, 2006 - the day that would have been Robert Kennedy's eighty-first birthday -- the BBC program Newsnight aired a startling report alleging that three CIA operatives were caught on camera at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on the night of Kennedy's assassination. The story suggested that they were involved in his killing. The BBC broadcast, produced by filmmaker Shane O'Sullivan, identified the three CIA operatives as George Joannides, David Morales and Gordon Campbell. All three were known to have worked for the Agency in Miami in the early 1960s when the White House ordered up a massive, not-so-secret effort to overthrow Fidel Castro's communist government in Cuba...

We spent six weeks interviewing dozens of people from Washington DC to Florida to California and Arizona who knew Joannides, Morales and Campbell at different times in their lives. We spoke with former CIA colleagues, retired State Department officials, personal friends and family members.

Gordon Campbell, it turns out, was not the deputy station chief in the CIA's Miami operation, as O'Sullivan reported. He could not have been at the scene of Bobby's Kennedy's assassination on June 5, 1968 because he died in 1962.

"I was right there when he died," said Enders in a telephone interview. "He was getting a drink at the drinking fountain in Zenith Technical Services (the cover name for the CIA's offices) in Miami. He stood up and started shaking and he collapsed and we tried to revive him. We gave him mouth to mouth to resuscitation and it just didn't work. It was a real bad heart attack." Campbell's death certificate, which identified him as a "maritime adviser," states he passed away on Sept. 19, 1962.


Living With the Curse of the Campbells

The arrival of Robbie Burns Day this Sunday invites contemplation of Scotland's most infamous clan. We speak, of course, of the Campbells. And we ask, are the Campbells cursed?

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How else to explain the shocking demise of Glen Campbell, his drunken, assaulting shenanigans in the news recently, the once great Vegas act left to belt out "Rhinestone Cowboy" from his jail cell?

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How else to explain B.C.'s own unfortunate drunk tank denizen named Campbell, a year later saddled with an economy that won't raise itself off the cold, hard floor, his government's offices raided as part of a sprawling organized crime investigation?

In Vancouver, Mayor Larry Campbell has his own version of the curse to deal with. Next April, he'll be saddled with an unmanageable homeless problem when B.C.'s welfare access gets stripped away -- by fellow clansman Gordon Campbell.

Anybody remember Avril Phaedra Campbell? We can add this exiled Campbell clanswoman to the Vancouver-spawned. She's the Tory changeling PM who took the 1993 election bullet for shirker Brian Mulroney. As Vancouver Centre MP, Kim was the-little-engine-that-could, but she now dines out on her political career working the speaker's circuit.

If we head across the pond to the UK fashion runways, we find supermodel and recidivist bully Naomi Campbell. She was back in the "Celebrity Justice" news cycle in November when she whacked yet another personal assistant with a cellphone.

The Campbells: A brief, dark history

These are but a few of the cursed and sometimes wicked Campbells. The Campbells, as noted above, are the black sheep clan of the Scottish Highlands. After the decline of Paganism, most Celtic Highlanders embraced Catholicism and some later even followed their chieftains into the Episcopalian faith. The opportunistic and reviled Campbells joined the dour Protestant Presbyterians (Lowland Scots). To other clans, that was one of their first big mistakes.

The hated Campbells are best known for the massacre at Glencoe at the ancestral lands of Clan MacDonald. In the early hours of February 13, 1692, 36 MacDonalds were slaughtered -- including women and young children -- after they had welcomed the Campbells into their homes. The Campbell contingent arrived there to convince the stubborn MacDonalds to pledge allegiance to the new Protestant Scottish king, William of Orange, as all other clans had done so they wouldn't continue to be harassed or killed.

At Glencoe (and in other nearby Highland villages) to this day, there are signs in restaurants, inns, pubs and shops that state: "We Don't Serve Campbells." And they aren't referring to the Campbell's soup cursed with MSG.

So they're good at ambushing and killing, but in case one wonders about whether these Campbells are known for being straight talkers, there's a metaphorical reason for that shortfall. Like all Highland clan and family names, Campbell was anglicized. The Gaelic spelling of their name, "Cambeul," translates cleanly as "twisted mouth," such as the common "Mac" translates as "son."

The Campbells acquired their lands mainly through guile, but also through legal process, largely with the support of some of Scotland's kings -- and after the union of 1707 -- England's kings.

Unwilling to just go about their lives satisfied with what lands and good fortune they already possessed, the Campbells were stricken with a desire to bully their way into the adjacent ancestral lands of other clans. It was the Campbells who hounded the MacGregors, the MacEwans, the MacNabs and many other unfortunate clans to the verge of extinction.

Highland clans aren't partial to forgiveness of Campbell treacheries past. Author Compton Mackenzie, in one of his books on the Highlands, has a character who trained his dogs to attack at the command: "Campbells!"

Several centuries ago, the fortunes of clan Campbell first began to change for the worse after a curse, foretelling their extinction, was placed upon them by the Old Woman of Lawers. Nowadays, though most Campbells have left Scotland and immigrated to the four corners of the globe, the curse has followed them wherever they stalk a political riding, casino lounge or fashion catwalk.

How to properly insult a Campbell

When it comes to ancient curses, the best defence is a good offence. So, the next time you are in Inveraray, near Loch Fyne in north-west Scotland, which happens to be HQ for the Campbells, consider partaking in this quaint ancient custom. As you drive past their dour castle over a narrow bridge, you extend your hand towards it, with the forefinger and little finger extended and the middle fingers curled into the palm (the devil's horns sign). Then you say "buitseach" (a Gaelic curse) three-times and also spit between the fingers three times.

Several years ago, a MacMillan carried out this act at Inveraray Castle. Three weeks later, the roof burned off it.

In the heather-covered Highlands, there's an irony that could be attributed to the curse. The Campbells' earlier land-grabbing ways have left them with nary a place to piss upon in the 21st century. In the 1920s, taxation and the lack of direct descendants forced Campbell heirs to sell off lands to meet their substantial debts. In 1948, the last of the ancestral lands were sold, although they have retained their Inveraray headquarters in Argyll.

Here I should confess. I too am of the cursed clan since my paternal grandmother was born of a Campbell mother from south of Ottawa. It is a hard burden to carry, but my MacGregor, MacMillan, MacEachern and Fraser clan genes fight those Campbell genes daily, not to mention living with a scrappy member of Clan Robertson.

If like me you have Clan Campbell blood, I suggest you keep it to yourself. It's nothing to be proud of and you'll just be embarrassed if you ask where the table knives have gone at the Robbie Burns Dinner on January 25th. That's when the other diners at your table will tell you that it's common practice to remove the knives when one dines with a Campbell.

Journalist D. Grant Black most recently has written for Ski Canada, Air Canada's enRoute, and a version of this piece appeared in the Globe and Mail . He created spikedstories.ca , a Web site for the rejected/killed stories of Canadian journalists and social satire written with his partner Patricia Robertson.


Garden History: A Very Short Introduction

Gardens take many forms, and have a variety of functions. They can serve as spaces of peace and tranquility, a way to cultivate wildlife, or as places to develop agricultural resources. Globally, gardens have inspired, comforted, and sustained people from all walks of life, and since the Garden of Eden many iconic gardens have inspired great artists, poets, musicians, and Gardens take many forms, and have a variety of functions. They can serve as spaces of peace and tranquility, a way to cultivate wildlife, or as places to develop agricultural resources. Globally, gardens have inspired, comforted, and sustained people from all walks of life, and since the Garden of Eden many iconic gardens have inspired great artists, poets, musicians, and writers.

In this Very Short Introduction, Gordon Campbell embraces gardens in all their splendour, from parks, and fruit and vegetable gardens to ornamental gardens, and takes the reader on a globe-trotting historical journey through iconic and cultural signposts of gardens from different regions and traditions. Ranging from the gardens of ancient Persia to modern day allotments, he concludes by looking to the future of the garden in the age of global warming, and the adaptive spirit of human innovation.

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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Contents

Origins Edit

The first Gordon on record is Richard of Gordon, previously of Swinton, said to have been the grandson of a famous knight who slew some monstrous animal in the Merse during the time of King Malcolm III of Scotland. This Richard was Lord of the Barony of Gordon in the Merse. Richard de (of) Gordon probably died around 1200. [8] Between 1150 and 1160 he granted from his estate a piece of land to the Monks of St. Mary at Kelso, a grant which was confirmed by his son Thomas Gordon. Other notable Gordons from this time include Bertram de Gordon who wounded King Richard of England with an arrow at Châlons. [9]

Alicia Gordon, IV of the Gordon family was the heiress who married her cousin, Adam Gordon. Adam Gordon was a soldier who King Alexander III of Scotland sent with King Louis of France to Palestine. One tradition is that from Adam's grandson, Sir Adam, all of the Gordons in Scotland are descended. This Adam Gordon supported Sir William Wallace in 1297 to recapture the Castle of Wigtown from the English and Adam was made the Governor. [9]

Wars of Scottish Independence Edit

During the Wars of Scottish Independence Sir Adam Gordon, who had supported William Wallace, renounced his subsequent acceptance of the claims of Edward I of England and became a staunch supporter of Robert the Bruce. [8] Adam was killed leading the Clan Gordon at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 but his son Sir Alexander Gordon escaped and was the first Gordon to be designated "of Huntly". [9]

Chief Sir John Gordon was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Otterburn where the English were defeated in 1388. His son, Chief Sir Adam Gordon, was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Homildon Hill, also known as the Battle of Humbleton Hill on 14 September 1402. The chief left his only child, a daughter named Elizabeth Gordon who married Alexander Seton, who was the son of Sir William Seton, chief of Clan Seton. [9]

15th century and clan conflicts Edit

The Battle of Arbroath was fought in 1445 where Patrick Gordon of Methlic, a cousin of the Earl of Huntly, was killed fighting the Clan Lindsay. From this Patrick Gordon the Earls of Aberdeen descend. [9] [10]

In 1449 Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Huntly, the eldest son of Elizabeth Gordon and Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon, changed the family name from Seton to Gordon.c. 1457 . [11] His male heirs through his third wife Elizabeth Crichton continued to bear the name of Gordon and were chiefs of Clan Gordon.

The chief of Clan Lindsay, Alexander Lindsay, the 4th Earl of Crawford, was badly defeated by the Clan Gordon and Clan Ogilvy under Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly (previously Alexander Seton) at the Battle of Brechin in 1452. [12]

The Gordons became involved in the deadly feud between the king and the Clan Douglas for power. [8] The Gordons supported the king but when Gordon moved his forces south, the Earl of Moray who was an ally of the Douglases devastated the Gordon lands and burned Huntly Castle. [8] However, the Gordons returned and soon defeated their enemies. [8] Huntly Castle was rebuilt and when the Douglases were finally defeated the power of the Gordons grew unchallenged. [8] In 1454 the Douglasses broke out in rebellion again and when confronted with the king in the south and Huntly in the north were soundly defeated, effectively ending the confederacy of the Douglasses, Rosses and Crawfords. [13] For his notable contributions Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly was styled Cock o' the North, a designation which has ever since been accorded to the heads of clan Gordon. [8] [13]

16th century and clan conflicts Edit

In 1513, during the Anglo-Scottish Wars, the Clan Gordon led by Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly fought at the Battle of Flodden. [9]

In 1515, the title of Earl of Sutherland and chiefship of the Clan Sutherland passed by right of marriage to Adam Gordon who was a younger son of George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly. [14]

Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars, George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly defeated an English army at the Battle of Haddon Rig in 1542 but the Gordons were later part of the Scottish army which was defeated at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. [9]

Chief George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly was General of the forces on the Borders who opposed the forces of Henry VIII of England and Gordon had many victorious encounters. He was however later killed at the Battle of Corrichie in 1562 fighting against the forces of James Stuart, Earl of Moray (half-brother to Mary Queen of Scots). Gordon was killed and his son, Sir John, and other members of his family were later executed at Aberdeen. [9]

Throughout the 16th century the Clan Gordon were involved in a long and bitter struggle against the Clan Forbes. [15] In the 1520s there were murders by both sides, and one of the most prominent killed by the Forbeses was Seton of Meldrum who was a close connection of the Earl of Huntly, chief of Clan Gordon. [15] The Earl of Huntly then became involved in a plot against the Master of Forbes, who was the son of the sixth Lord Forbes. [15] The sixth Lord Forbes had been heavily implicated of the murder of Seton of Meldrum. [15] The Master of Forbes was accused by the Earl of Huntly of conspiring to assassinate James V of Scotland in 1536 by shooting at him with a cannon. [15] The Master of Forbes was tried and executed however just days later his conviction was reversed and the Forbes family was restored to favor. [15] The Protestant Reformation added to the feud between the Clan Forbes and Clan Gordon in that the Gordons remained Catholic and the Forbeses became Protestant. [15] The traditional enemies of the Forbses such as the Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton sided with the Gordons while Protestant families such as the Clan Keith, Clan Fraser and Clan Crichton sided with the Clan Forbes. [15] Twenty Gordons were killed at a banquet held at the Forbes's Druminnor Castle in 1571. [16] Later in 1571 the feud climaxed with the Battle of Tillieangus, [16] and the Battle of Craibstone, and Druminnor, then the seat of the chief of Clan Forbes was plundered. [15] The Gordons followed this up with the massacre of twenty seven Forbeses of Towie at Corgarff Castle. [15] It took two Acts of Parliament for the clans to put down their arms. [15]

17th century and Civil War Edit

The register of the Privy Seal records that in 1615 a complaint was made from Alexander Leask of the Clan Leask that Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird of Gight, put violent hands upon him at the Yet of Leask, wounding him grievously. [18] Later that year the Gordons again attacked the Leasks, setting upon a son of the chief for which George Gordon was outlawed. [18] In 1616, William Leask of that Ilk was accosted by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of men with pistolets and hagbuts. [9] [18]

In the early 17th century Clan Gordon had a number of alliances by marriage or friendship. Among these was a strong bond to the Clan Burnett of Leys. The Gordon crest is emblazoned in plasterwork on the ceiling of the early 17th century great hall of Muchalls Castle built by Alexander Burnett. [9]

In 1644 Alexander Bannerman of Pitmedden fought a duel with his cousin, Sir George Gordon of Haddo, and wounded him. Also in 1644 during the Civil War at the Battle of Aberdeen there were Gordons on both sides. Lord Lewis Gordon led his forces on the side of the Covenanters while Sir Nathaniel Gordon led his forces in support of the Royalists. [9]

During the Civil War the second Marquess of Huntly was a fierce royalist and his followers have passed into history as the Gordon Horse and they figured very prominently in the campaigns of the great James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. [8] Cavalry from the Clan Gordon fought in support of the royalists at the Battle of Auldearn in 1645 where they helped to defeat the Covenanters of Lord Seaforth. The Clan Gordon fought at the Battle of Alford in 1645 where they were victorious, led by George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Huntly. The Marquess of Huntly's eldest son George Gordon fell at this battle. [9] Also in 1645, Lewis Gordon, clan chief and 3rd Marquess of Huntly burned Brodie Castle of the Clan Brodie. [19]

In 1682 William Gordon of Cardoness Castle, was killed in a fight with Sir Godfrey McCulloch. McCulloch fled Scotland for a time, but returned, only to be apprehended and executed in 1697. [20]

18th century and Jacobite risings Edit

Jacobite rising of 1715 Edit

The Gordons fought on both sides during both the Jacobite rising of 1715 and the Jacobite rising of 1745. [8] The second Duke of Gordon followed the Jacobites in 1715 and fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. [8] General Wade's report on the Highlands in 1724, estimated the clan strength at 1,000 men. [21]

Jacobite rising of 1745 Edit

Cosmo Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon supported the British Government during the rising of 1745. [8] However, his brother, Lord Lewis Gordon, raised two Jacobite regiments against the Hanoverians. [8] The Gordon Jacobites fought at the Battle of Inverurie (1745), the Battle of Falkirk (1746) and the Battle of Culloden (1746). [9]

British Army regiments Edit

Two regiments named the "Gordon Highlanders" have been raised from the Clan Gordon. The first was the 81st Regiment of Foot (Aberdeenshire Highland Regiment) formed in 1777 by the Hon. Colonel William Gordon, son of the Earl of Aberdeen and was disbanded in 1783. The second was the 92nd (Gordon Highlanders) Regiment of Foot raised by Alexander the 4th Duke of Gordon in 1794. [9]

  • The Chief of Clan Gordon is Granville Charles Gomer Gordon, 13th Marquess of Huntly, Earl of Enzie, Earl of Aboyne, Lord Gordon of Badenoch, Lord Gordon of Strathavon and Glenlivet, Baron Meldrum of Morven. [22]
  • The Chief of Clan Gordon is known as: The Cock o' the North. [23][24]
  • Chief's Arms: Quarterly, 1st Azure three boars’ heads coupedOr langued Gules (for Gordon), 2nd, Or three lions heads erased Gules langued Azure (for Lordship of Badenoch), 3rd, Or three crescents within a Royal Tressure flory counter flory Gules (for Seton), 4th, Azure three fraises Argent (for Fraser, acquisition of the Aboyne lands) [25]

Clan Gordon has several recognized tartans:

  • Gordon (Modern)
  • Gordon (Dress)
  • Gordon (Ancient)
  • Gordon (Weathered)
  • Gordon (Muted)
  • Gordon (Red)

The Gordon Modern tartan was used by The Gordon Highlanders, (now The Highlanders (4th Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland)) and is sometimes referred to as "Military". The tartan itself is based on the Black Watch military tartan with an additional yellow stripe. The difference between the family sett (modern) and military sett is only in the pleating of the kilt. The military pleat to the stripe, showing a series of stripes across the back of the kilt. The family sett is pleated to the sett, showing the repeat of the pattern in its entirety across the back of the kilt. The Red Gordon tartan is sometimes referred to as "Huntly".

The Gordon Modern tartan has been used for many years as the troop tartan for the 10th Finchley (Scottish) Scout Group, London N3. [27] The Scout Group was and still is unique in being the only group south of the border to wear kilts and actively maintains its links with the Gordon clan. Every four years (with a few exceptions) they camp in the grounds of Aboyne Castle and the Marquess would often attend Burns Night dinners as the guest of honour at the scout hall. The group's pipe band always plays "The Cock of the North 6/8 March" when returning to their hall following parades and every member wears a badge bearing the stag's head that forms part of the clan crest. A picture of the band outside their current scout hall shows all members wearing Gordon Tartan kilts. [28] [29] The ties go further, with the address of the scout hall being Gordon Hall, Huntly Drive, West Finchley, London, N3.

Castles that have been owned by the Clan Gordon include amongst many others:


Origin of Campbell Name

The Campbell name, it is said, was derived from the Gaelic for ‘wry mouth’ or even ‘crooked mouth’. This may be due to an ancestor having a physical abnormality. Before this nickname stuck, Clan Campbell was known as Clan Dairmid.

The Campbell name rose to prominence towards the end of the 1200s, when Cailean Mór Caimbeul, famous warrior, was active. Cailean Mór was allegedly a cousin of Robert the Bruce and took part in The Great Cause, a scuffle for the throne of Scotland between the Bruce and John Balliol which had the unfortunate consequence of providing leverage for Edward I of England (the Hammer of the Scots) to assume over lordship of Scotland. This turn of events led to the Scottish Wars of Independence as Robert the Bruce fought to win back his crown.

The legendary and edifying history of Cailean Mór has resulted in each successive chief of the Campbell Clan taking this name and styling himself MacCailean Mór, (to mean ‘a son of’ Cailean Mór). This famous Scottish warrior was knighted by Robert The Bruce in 1280 and his son, Neil, was given lands in Loch Awe, and Argyll. This is also where the Campbells established their power base for the next seven hundred years.


Gardens take many forms, and have a variety of functions. They can serve as spaces of peace and tranquilty, a way to cultivate wildlife, or as places to develop agricultural resources. Globally, gardens have inspired, comforted, and sustained people from all walks of life, and since the Garden of Eden many iconic gardens have inspired great artists, poets, musicians, and writers.

In this Very Short Introduction, Gordon Campbell embraces gardens in all their splendour, from parks, and fruit and vegetable gardens to ornamental gardens, and takes the reader on a globe-trotting historical journey through iconic and cultural signposts of gardens from different regions and traditions. Ranging from the gardens of ancient Persia to modern day allotments, he concludes by looking to the future of the garden in the age of global warming, and the adaptive spirit of human
innovation.

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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The site for Camp Campbell was selected on July 16, 1941, and the Title I Survey was completed November 15, 1941, coincidentally the same time the Japanese Imperial Fleet was leaving Japanese home waters for the attack on Pearl Harbor. Construction of Camp Campbell began on January 12, 1942. Within a year, the reservation designated as Camp Campbell was developed to accommodate one armored division and various support troops, with a total size of 102,414 acres (414 km 2 ), and billets for 2,422 officers and 45,198 enlisted personnel.

Due to its close proximity to Clarksville, the War Department on March 6, 1942, designated Tennessee as the official address of the new camp. This caused a great deal of confusion. While the headquarters and a great majority of the base's acreage was in Tennessee, the base's post office was in Kentucky. After many months of mail delivery problems, Colonel Guy W. Chipman requested that the address be changed to Camp Campbell, Kentucky. The War Department officially changed the address on September 23, 1942.

Early in the summer of 1942, the post's initial cadre, one officer and 19 enlisted men, arrived from Fort Knox, Kentucky. From that time until the end of World War II, Camp Campbell was the training ground for the 12th, 14th and 20th Armored divisions, Headquarters IV Armored Corps and the 26th Infantry Division. Several formations were sent to Camp Campbell after the war and deactivated, one being the 5th Infantry Division in September 1946.

In the spring of 1949, the 11th Airborne Division arrived at Campbell following occupation duty in Japan. The 11th was in residence there until early 1956.

By April 1950, the post had evolved from a wartime training camp to a permanent installation and was renamed Fort Campbell.

From 1950 to 1962, the post operated an Airborne Course which trained nearly 30,000 soldiers as paratroopers before its inactivation.

On September 21, 1956, Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker and the Army Chief of Staff, General Maxwell D. Taylor, presented the colors of the 101st Airborne Division to MG T.L. Sherbourne, the first commander of the new, previously experimental, ROTAD (Reorganization Of The Airborne Division)division. This ceremony officially reactivated the famed "Screaming Eagles" of World War II.

On May 2, 1966, Third Army General Order 161 directed the activation of a Basic Combat Training Center at Fort Campbell. On July 6, barely two months after its activation, Fort Campbell's Army Training Center received its first 220 newly inducted soldiers. Basic Combat Training began on schedule July 11 with a full complement of 1,100 trainees. The Training Center operated until April 15, 1972, when it was deactivated.

The 1st Brigade was sent for duty in Vietnam in July 1965. Soon thereafter, upon the escalation of hostilities in Southeast Asia, the rest of the division arrived. Also in response to the military buildup, the 6th Infantry Division was reactivated at Fort Campbell on November 24, 1966, and inactivated July 25, 1968.

In September 1971, the 173rd Airborne Brigade returned to Fort Campbell and conducted its official homecoming ceremonies, which were presided over by Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird. The 173rd was then inactivated on 14 January 1972 [2] and its personnel and the equipment used to rebuild the 3rd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile). [3] The 3rd Brigade remained on jump status until April 1974, when its jump status was terminated and the division became entirely airmobile. On April 6, 1972, the 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) was officially welcomed back to its home station after the cessation of hostilities in Vietnam. The ceremonies were attended by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew and General William C. Westmoreland, Army Chief of Staff.

Fort Campbell had a children's theatre program until it closed down in 1983.

On December 12, 1985, 246 servicemembers died with eight aircrews shortly after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland, Canada, during a return from peacekeeping duties in Egypt. A memorial grove of trees and monument are near the post museum.

Criminal incidents Edit

On July 5, 1999, Private First Class Barry Winchell, 21, of 2nd Battalion, 502nd Infantry Regiment, was bludgeoned to death with a baseball bat in his barracks. [4] The murder was committed by Private Calvin Glover, who was egged on by Specialist Justin Fisher. [5] Apparently the motive was punishing Winchell for falling in love with Calpernia Addams, a transsexual showgirl. Winchell died at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville. Glover was later convicted for the murder, while Fisher was convicted of lesser crimes. Fisher was released to a halfway house in August 2006 and was later released from all custody. Glover received a life sentence and is eligible for parole after 15 years. [ citation needed ]

On October 13, 2005, Fort Campbell made international headlines when Private Nicholas Mikel opened fire on a group of soldiers training at the base. Private Mikel was arrested soon thereafter and charged with attempted murder. In April 2006 he was convicted of attempted premeditated murder and sentenced to 25 years imprisonment. [6]

2011 tornado Edit

Early on April 26, 2011, a strong tornado struck the Campbell Army Airfield at Fort Campbell, destroying one building and causing heavy damage to several others, all of which were large and well-constructed. Large doors were blown in on these buildings as well. Several other smaller buildings received minor to major damage, and numerous heavy vehicles were damaged, with at least three being flipped over. Immediately north of the airfield, across farmland, several dozen trees were downed, two barns were heavily damaged, three power poles were blown down, and some shingles were blown off of a house. The tornado was rated EF3 on the Enhanced Fujita scale. [7]

The Sabalauski Air Assault School, named after Command Sergeant Major Walter James Sabalauski is located on Fort Campbell. Courses taught include Air Assault, Pathfinder, Pre-Ranger, Jumpmaster Refresher, and Rappel Master. FRIES/SPIES Master courses are also taught. The school is also home to the Division's Parachute Demonstration Team.

Kentucky has limited rights to taxation: Individuals performing services on the Kentucky portion of Fort Campbell only pay taxes to the state where they are residents, refer to US Code Title 4, Chapter 4, §115. Tennessee has no state income tax on wages, however.

The Fort Campbell parachute demonstration team was established in 1958 during the infancy of precision freefall as the Army's first such team—pre-dating the Golden Knights, United States Army Parachute Team, by one year. Early team members were soldiers who volunteered their free time in order to perform quality parachute demonstrations. In 1984, the 101st command group opted to form a full-time parachute team, known as the "Screaming Eagles".

The "Screaming Eagles" perform more than 60 parachute demonstrations each year in front of an average viewing audience of 5,000 spectators. The team has a diverse background of Army Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) and at this time has seven members. The team has one Light Wheeled Mechanic, two Combat Medics, three Infantrymen, and one Parachute Rigger most of whom have combat experience. Collectively, the 2009 team has more than 40 years of skydiving experience and more than 6,000 skydives.

    101st Airborne Division160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment5th Special Forces Group52nd Ordnance Group (EOD)
  • 531st Hospital Center
  • 502nd Military Police Battalion (CID)
    19th Air Support Operations Squadron (19th ASOS)
  • 18th Weather Squadron, Detachment 4

Other facilities include Blanchfield Army Community Hospital, Sabalauski Air Assault School and the SSG John W. Kreckel NCO Academy.


Gordon Campbell on our history of selling out the Kurds

F or the past 100 years, the West has sold out the Kurds over and over again. So much so that it came as a surprise yesterday when US National Security advisor John Bolton appeared to walk back the latest act of betrayal. Before Christmas, US President Donald Trump had got off the phone from talking with Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan to immediately announce that the US would be pulling its 2,000 troops out of Syria, thereby leaving America’s Kurdish allies in northern Syria to the tender mercies of Turkey’s military forces.

No matter that the Kurds had done the bulk of the fighting – and dying – over the past five years in the battle against Islamic State, thereby ensuring that precious American lives would not be lost. One of the main reasons the US did not have to put very many boots on the ground in Syria (or earlier, in clearing Islamic State out of the city of Mosul in northern Iraq) was because Kurdish fighters served as a very effective US proxy force. Thousands of them died in the process.

In northern Syria, the Kurds have established an effective form of self-government in a small region the Kurds call Rojava. None of that seems to have mattered. To Trump, the Kurds were disposable. Faced with a strongman like Erdogan, Trump did what he commonly does in the presence of raw power and went weak at the knees. Sure, he reportedly told Erdogan, the US troops serving as a buffer between the Kurds and the Turks would be withdrawn. Go get ‘em.

Thankfully, Bolton – who appears to be running US foreign policy almost singlehandedly – has stepped in and said that the US withdrawal will be delayed, and would be conditional on Turkish assurances that the safety of the Kurds will be assured.

Time will tell whether those delays in withdrawal – and the assurances by Turkey – are real, or merely a cosmetic gesture. For the Kurds in northern Syria, the latest episode will have been a jarring reminder of just how futile it is to trust the Americans. Israel and Saudi Arabia excepted, the US is liable to treat its allies as expendable at a moment’s notice.

A century of betrayal

The West’s list of betrayals of the Kurds has been astonishingly extensive. When the Ottoman Empire was carved up in the wake of the First World War and new nation states were created, the Kurds had been promised a homeland by the Treaty of Sevres in 1920. That commitment lasted exactly three years, before being reversed by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

Since then, the Kurds have never relinquished the dream of a homeland of their own although – today – Kurdish populations are still spread across southern Turkey, northern Iraq, northwestern Iran and northern Syria. To date, the best that has been achieved has been the Kurdish autonomous enclave in northern Iraq – which the government in Baghdad regards as being only a federated ‘region’ of Iraq under its ultimate control. Inside Turkey, the Erdogan government brutally oppresses its Kurdish population and treats its political aspirations as terrorism. For its part, the US has been a treacherous ally of the Kurds for decades. In 1975, the US indirectly encouraged the Kurds in Iraq to rebel against Saddam Hussein and – when they did – it then reconsidered, and pressured the Shah of Iran to cut off his support to the Kurdish rebels.

This process was repeated in the wake of the 1991 Gulf War, when the US encouraged the Kurds to rise up against Saddam, and then virtually stood by while his forces slaughtered tens of thousands of them, and turned roughly a million Kurds into refugees. Belatedly a “ no fly” zone was created to protect the Kurds in northern Iraq, and this later became the basis for today’s limited form of Kurdish self-government.

At the same time in the early 1990s, the Western public was being encouraged to donate relief funds via the widely publicised Concert for the Kurds (Sting! Paul Simon! Chris De Burgh!) The concert created an outpouring of global sympathy that ended up doing very little for the Kurds, but it did earn Jeffrey Archer a knighthood. At the time, Archer claimed that his concert had raised 57 million pounds for the Kurds. A subsequent audit showed the concert itself had actually raised only 1.5 and 3 million pounds at most, of which the Kurds reportedly received about 250,000 pounds.

The 2003 Iraq invasion

The Kurds were once again fighting in the frontlines in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Back in 1970, decades of battle in Iraq had culminated in a draft autonomy plan that offered a limited extent of self-governance to the Kurds – a proposal which was then shelved by (a) the outbreak of the Second Kurdish/Iraqi war of the mid 1970s that I deferred to earlier, and (b) by the horrendous Iraq versus Iran war of the 1980s, and (c) by the 1991 Gulf War and its aftermath.

With Saddam overthrown, a revised version of the original 1970 draft autonomy plan finally became feasible. From its capital in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan is governed today by the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) and the population of roughly 5.8 million people gets to elect a parliament of 111 seats. As mentioned, this area remains a federated region within Iraq, and there have been recurring disputes about the extent of territorial power and overt the extent to which Kurdistan’s oil proceeds need to be shared with Baghdad. An attempt by the Iraqi Kurds to push for a referendum for full independence backfired spectacularly in 2017, in that it was widely opposed by the Baghdad government and by its Western allies.

Rojava Redux

The current Kurdish flashpoint is in northern Syria, where the battlefield successes against IS by the homegrown YPG (Peoples Protection Unit) fighters drawn from the local Kurdish communities have enabled them to carve out a Syrian region that the Kurds call Rojava.

The Kurds had hoped that Rojava would become a permanent autonomous enclave vis a vis the Assad government in Damascus, akin to what the Kurds have achieved in Iraq – although the Rojava Kurds are significantly more radical than their counterparts inside Iraq.

Turkey however, will not accept the Rojava enclave on its border, largely for fear of the model of independence that it offers to Turkey’s oppressed Kurdish population. Trump, aware of how the continued US support for Saudi Arabia over the Khashoggi affair had enraged Erdogan, offered Turkey a free hand in northern Syria by pulling out US troops, in an obvious gesture of appeasement.

Yet for now at least, John Bolton can see that giving Turkey a free hand to slaughter a brave US ally might be a rather bad look. Such treachery however, would be entirely consistent with the West’s historical treatment of the Kurds. In many respects, as British journalist Robert Fisk keeps on reminding us, the Middle East is still trapped by the unjust imperial boundaries that the West drew up more than a century ago.

Bad Ones Win Again

For over a decade, Matthew Dear has been a techno multithreat offering (a) big cavernous EDM under his Audion name (b) interesting selections and mixes in his contribution to the DJ Kicks series, and (c) great, Bowie-inflected pop dance music under his own name. On the “Bad Ones” cut from his excellent album Bunny, Dear adroitly uses the Canadian duo of Tegan and Sara alongside his own vocals, in a typically wry/ingratiating/menacingly predatory song about bad boy sexuality:

I’ve played a role in all your tears / Hate flowers but they seem to work on you, my dear / Freaking out and paralyzed / Your body tempts me…. I haven’t told you lies this year / Wouldn’t send you flowers if my love was insincere / Freaking out and paralyzed / Your body takes me…. If I was one of the good ones I don’t think you’d like me / I’m one of the bad ones / And that’s why you feel lucky….


The Renaissance is one of the most celebrated periods in European history. But when did it begin? When did it end? And what did it include?

Traditionally regarded as a revival of classical art and learning, centred upon fifteenth-century Italy, views of the Renaissance have changed considerably in recent decades. The glories of Florence and the art of Raphael and Michelangelo remain an important element of the Renaissance story, but they are now only a part of a much wider story which looks beyond an exclusive focus on high culture, beyond the Italian peninsula, and beyond the fifteenth century.

The Oxford Illustrated History of the Renaissance tells the cultural history of this broader and longer Renaissance: from seminal figures such as Dante and Giotto in thirteenth-century Italy, to the waning of Spain's 'golden age' in the 1630s, and the closure of the English theatres in 1642, the date generally taken to mark the end of the English literary Renaissance.

Geographically, the story ranges from Spanish America to Renaissance Europe's encounter with the Ottomans-and far beyond, to the more distant cultures of China and Japan. And thematically, under Gordon Campbell's expert editorial guidance, the volume covers the whole gamut of Renaissance civilization, with chapters on humanism and the classical tradition war and the state religion art and architecture the performing arts literature craft and technology science and medicine and travel
and cultural exchange.
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A Short History of Gardens

Gardens take many forms, and have a variety of functions. They can serve as spaces of peace and tranquilty, a way to cultivate wildlife, or as places to develop agricultural resources. Globally, gardens have inspired, comforted, and sustained people from all walks of life, and since the Garden of Eden many iconic gardens have inspired great artists, poets, musicians, and w Gardens take many forms, and have a variety of functions. They can serve as spaces of peace and tranquilty, a way to cultivate wildlife, or as places to develop agricultural resources. Globally, gardens have inspired, comforted, and sustained people from all walks of life, and since the Garden of Eden many iconic gardens have inspired great artists, poets, musicians, and writers.

In this short history, Gordon Campbell embraces gardens in all their splendour, from parks, and fruit and vegetable gardens to ornamental gardens, and takes the reader on a globe-trotting historical journey through iconic and cultural signposts of gardens from different regions and traditions. Ranging from the gardens of ancient Persia to modern day allotments, he concludes by looking to the future of the garden in the age of global warming, and the adaptive spirit of human
innovation. . more


Watch the video: Gorden Campbell: Drum Solo from Bus Tours (May 2022).