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Shadwell LSD-15 - History

Shadwell LSD-15 - History

Shadwell

(LSD-15: dp. 4,490, 1. 457'9", b. 72'2", dr. 18'0"s. 15.4 k. (tl.); cpl. 326; a. 1 5'', 10 40mm.; cl. Casa Grande)

Initially named Tomahawk, then renamed Waterway upon assignment to the United Kingdom, LSD 15 was reassigned back to the United States and named Shadwell. She was laid down on 17 January 1944 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., at Newport News, Va.; launched on 24 May 1944; sponsored by Miss Mary Greenman; and commissioned on 24 July 1944, Lt. Comdr. William K. Brooks in command.

After shakedown, Shadwell sailed from Hampton Roads on 26 August 1944. She transited the Panama Canal on 1 September and headed for San Diego, where she laid over for a docking period. After almost a month at San Diego, she departed on 2 October to join the Pacific Fleet. Upon arrival, Shadwell was employed in the transportation of heavy amphibious equipment between the islands of the southern Pacific. During this time, she visited Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomons, Espiritu Santo on the New Hebrides Manus in the Admiralties, and Hollandia and Aitape on New Guinea.

On 28 December 1944, Shadwell embarked elements of the 1060th Engineer Battalion, United States Army and sailed from New Guinea with Task Force 78. Though her convoy came under continual submarine, surface, and air attack, so efficient were the screening units that Shadwell's guns remained silent throughout the entire voyage to Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, P.I. However, on 9 January 1945 (Lingayen D-day), Shadwell's gunners proved their worth by splashing a Zeke. Shadwell returned immediately to the staging area at Hollandia, New Guinea, embarked additional troops of the 1060th Army Engineers, then departed for Leyte, P.I. At Leyte, she joined Task Group 78.8, which soon made for Lingayen.

On the evening of 24 January 1945, the task group was sailing south of Siquijor Island, in the Philippines, when it was attacked by three torpedo bombers. Two were splashed by the convoy's combat air patrol but the third escaped into the darkness. It soon returned, swooping down from the hills on the island, and pressed home its attack. The convoy's antiaircraft guns brought the enemy down, but not before he was able to release his torpedo. The air-dropped "fish" struck Shadwell just forward of amidships on the starboard side, tearing a hole in her bottom 60 feet wide. The landing ship was taking water badly and soon began to sink. The convoy steamed on while two destroyers stood by to evacuate her crew if necessary. Shadwell's crew worked frantically to save their sinking ship and, by morning, their efforts were rewarded. Shadwell was steaming under her own power, steering for Leyte by trick wheel. Of the more than 500 men aboard Shadwell at the time, there were no fatalities and only three casualties, all only slightly injured.

Temporary repairs were made at Leyte and, when she was deemed seaworthy Shadwell steamed on to Manus in the Admiralty Islands. There she went into drydock and underwent further temporary repairs before crossing the Pacific for permanent repairs. On 4 May, she reached Bremerton, Wash., and entered the Navy Yard. Just over two months later, she departed the yard to rejoin the fleet, sailing on 11 July. She stopped over at San Francisco, Calif., on the 14th and 15th, fueled and took on ballast, then set course for Hawaii. On 23 July, she anchored in Maalaea Bay, off Maui and, the next day, shifted to Pearl Harbor. On the 28th, Shadwell set sail for the western Pacific specifically Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshalls. She arrived there on 6 August and departed on the following day, bound for Samar in the Philippines. En route to Samar, she was diverted twice, first to Saipan, then to Guam, where she arrived on 13 August. Shadwell departed that same day to join the 3d Fleet and, on the 17th, two days after the cessation of hostilities, she joined TG 30.8. Ten days later, the landing ship arrived in Sagami Wan, off Tokyo Bay, and. two days thereafter, moored in the bay itself. Shadwe11 remained moored at Tokyo through May 1946, operating the boat pool there.

Returning to the United States in mid-1946, Shadwell underwent preinactivation overhaul and, on 10 July 1947, was placed out of commission, in reserve. She was berthed at Orange, Tex., as a unit of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

On 20 September 1950, Shadwell recommissioned at Orange, Tex., and she operated for the next five years in the western Atl~ntie and Caribbean. Ranging as far north as Labrador, Greenland, and Newfoundland. Shadwell participated in several Arctic circle expeditions and exercises including "Bluejay" and "Convex" in 1951 and "Pinetree" in 1953. The remainder of her time was spent along the eastern seaboard and in the Caribbean.

In 1956. after one Caribbean operation, Shadwell departed Norfolk for a tour of duty with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Thus she began a schedule o f deployments, alternating Atlantic-Caribbean duty with cruises in the Mediterranean, which lasted until she was decommissioned in 1971.

Ten times, during the intervening 15 years, Shadwell cruised the "middle sea" and visited its ports of call. In 1959, Shadwell became the first helicopter-carrying dock landing shin. In 1961. she underwent Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) overhaul. She was in the Atlantic supporting the Cuban quarantine in October 1962. In February 1964. she participated in the amphibious exercise "Quick Kick V" on the coast of South Carolina. Seven months later, during the passage to her sixth Mediterranean deployment, Shadwell took part in Opperation "Steel Pike" executed off the coast of Spain. In January 1968, she was in the Caribbean engaged in Operation "Sl>ring Board."

During August 1968, Shadwell departed the Mediterranean after a five-month deployment. She entered Little Creek, Va., on the 19th to be~in inactivation overhaul. Eight months later, on 9 March 1970, she was placed out of commission, in reserve. On 9 September, Shadwell was transferred to the James River, Va., ground of the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Through 1974, she remains berthed at James River.


Casa Grande-class dock landing ship

The Casa Grande class was a class of dock landing ships used by the Royal Navy and the United States Navy during the Second World War. Nineteen ships were planned, but two, USS Fort Snelling and USS Point Defiance were cancelled before being completed.

  • Royal Navy
  • United States Navy
  • Spanish Navy
  • Hellenic Navy
  • French Navy
  • Republic of China Navy
  • 4,032 tons (light)
  • 7,930 tons (seagoing)
  • 454 ft (138 m) at waterline
  • 457 ft 9 in (139.52 m) oa
  • 2-shaft turbines, 2 boilers
  • 7,000 shp (LSD13-21 and 25-27)
  • 9,000 shp (LSD22-24)
  • One of the following arrangements:
    • 3 × LCT Mark V or VI or
    • 2 × LCT Mark III or IV or
    • 14 × LCM Mark III or
    • 41 × LVTor
    • 47 × DUKWs
    • 1 × 5"/38 guns
    • 12 × 40 mm Bofors guns (2 × 2), (2 × 4)
    • 16 × 20mm guns

    1940s

    Initially authorized under the Lend-Lease Act and named Tomahawk, then renamed Waterway upon assignment to the United Kingdom, LSD-15 was reassigned back to the United States and named Shadwell. She was laid down on 17 January 1944 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., at Newport News, Virginia launched on 24 May 1944 sponsored by Miss Mary Greenman and commissioned on 24 July 1944, Lieutenant Commander William K. Brooks in command.

    After shakedown, Shadwell sailed from Hampton Roads on 26 August 1944. She transited the Panama Canal on 1 September and headed for San Diego, where she laid over for a docking period. After almost a month at San Diego, she departed on 2 October to join the Pacific Fleet. Upon arrival, Shadwell was employed in the transportation of heavy amphibious equipment between the islands of the southern Pacific. During this time, she visited Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomons, Espiritu Santo on the New Hebrides, Manus in the Admiralty Islands, and Hollandia and Aitape on New Guinea.

    On 28 December 1944, Shadwell embarked elements of the 1060th Engineer Battalion, United States Army, and sailed from New Guinea with Task Force 78 (TF㻎). Though her convoy came under continual submarine, surface, and air attack, so efficient were the screening units that Shadwell’s guns remained silent throughout the entire voyage to Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, P.I. However, on 9 January 1945 (D-day for the Luzon invasion), Shadwell’s gunners proved their worth by splashing an A6M Zero. Shadwell returned immediately to the staging area at Hollandia, New Guinea, embarked additional troops of the 1060th Army Engineers, then departed for Leyte, P.I. At Leyte, she joined Task Group 78.8 (TG㻎.8), which soon made for Lingayen.

    On the evening of 24 January 1945, the task group was sailing south of Siquijor Island, in the Philippines, when it was attacked by three torpedo bombers. Two were splashed by the convoy's combat air patrol, but the third escaped into the darkness. It soon returned, swooping down from the hills on the island, and pressed home its attack. The convoy's antiaircraft guns brought the enemy down, but not before he was able to release his torpedo. The air-dropped "fish" struck Shadwell just forward of amidships on the starboard side, tearing a hole in her bottom 60 feet wide (20 m). The landing ship was taking water badly and soon began to sink. The convoy steamed on while two destroyers stood by to evacuate her crew if necessary. Shadwell’s crew worked frantically to save their sinking ship and, by morning, their efforts were rewarded. Shadwell was steaming under her own power, steering for Leyte by trick wheel. Of the more than 500 men aboard Shadwell at the time, there were no fatalities and only three casualties, all only slightly injured.

    Temporary repairs were made at Leyte and, when she was deemed seaworthy, Shadwell steamed on to Manus in the Admiralty Islands. There she went into drydock and underwent further temporary repairs before crossing the Pacific for permanent repairs. On 4 May, she reached Bremerton, Washington, and entered the Puget Sound Navy Yard. Just over two months later, she departed the yard to rejoin the fleet, sailing on 11 July. She stopped over at San Francisco, California on the 14th and 15th, fueled and took on ballast, then set course for Hawaii. On 23 July, she anchored in Maalaea Bay, off Maui and, the next day, shifted to Pearl Harbor. On the 28th, Shadwell set sail for the western Pacific, specifically Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshalls. She arrived there on 6 August and departed on the following day, bound for Samar in the Philippines. En route to Samar, she was diverted twice, first to Saipan, then to Guam, where she arrived on 13 August. Shadwell departed that same day to join the 3d Fleet and, on the 17th, two days after the cessation of hostilities, she joined TG㺞.8. Ten days later, the landing ship arrived in Sagami Wan, off Tokyo Bay, and, two days thereafter, moored in the bay itself. Shadwell remained moored at Tokyo through May 1946, operating the boat pool there.

    Returning to the United States in mid-1946, Shadwell underwent preinactivation overhaul and, on 10 July 1947, was placed out of commission, in reserve. She was berthed at Orange, Texas, as a unit of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.


    USN – Retired Amphibious Warfare Ships

    This page does not include Amphibious Assault Ships, which are found on an earlier page.

    Amphibious Transport Docks

    Austin Class LOA 570′ TDISP 16,900 tons (12, all retired, 1 transferred to Indian Navy)

    USS Denver LPD-9, 1985 NARA: 330-CFD-DN-SC-85-08314

    USS Dubuque LPD-8 (1967-2011) Vietnam War veteran. Currently inactive at Bremerton WA

    USS Duluth LPD-6 (1965 – 2005), towed to Brownsville TX January 2014 for scrapping

    USS Ponce LPD-15 (1971 – 2017) inactive, to be scrapped. In 2012 was converted to an Afloat Forward Staging Base to test a concept developed into the Lewis B. Puller class.

    Final voyage of USS Denver LPD-9 leaving Sasebo Japan 2014 US Navy: 1461456 Mass Communications Specialist Seaman Cameron McCulloch

    Anchorage Class Dock Landing Ship LSD LOA 553′ TDISP 14,200 tons (5, 1 still active in Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy)

    USS Fort Fisher LSD-40, Hong Kong,1992 NARA: 330-CFD-DN-SC-92-09505 LTJG Jeff Hilton

    USS Pensacola LSD-38 (1971) Transferred to Republic of China Navy 1999 as ROCS Hsu Hai (LSD-193), extensively upgraded, currently in service

    USS Pensacola LSD-38 showing the well deck, LCAC onboard, carrying an M-60 tank, 1985. NARA: 330-CFD-DN-SC-85-08015

    Thomaston Class Dock Landing Ship LOA 510′ TDISP 11,500 tons (8, 2 transferred to Brazil, one of these the only remaining unit in reserve)

    USS Spiegel Grove LSD-42, 1984 NARA: 330-CFD-DN-SC-85-03922

    USS Hermitage LSD-34 (1956 – 1989) transferred to Brazil 1989 as NDD Ceará G-30 currently in reserve

    USS Hermitage LSD-34 early in her career during a 1964 visit to Halifax NS. Credit: Library and Archives Canada / Department of National Defence Copyright held by Crown HS-75047

    USS Alamo LSD-33 (1956 – 1990) transferred to Brazil as Rio de Janeiro G-31 1990, now awaiting disposal

    Raleigh Class LPD Amphibious Transport Dock LOA 519′ TDISP 14,100 tons (3 units, 1 transformed into as a Command Ship 1972, all scrapped or sunk)

    USS Vancouver LPH-2, 1991 NARA: 330-CFD-DN-SC-05-01655

    USS Vancouver LPD-2 (1963 – 1992) Laid up Suisun Bay CA. Scrapped 2013 Brownsville TX

    Casa Grande Class Dock Landing Ship LOA 458′ TDISP 4,500 tons (17, 4 served in Royal Navy, all now scrapped or sunk)

    USS San Marcos LSD-25 near HMCS Labrador, 1957. Credit Library and Archives Canada / Department of National Defence LAB-2362 Copyright belongs to Crown.

    USS Shadwell LSD-15 (1944 – 1970) used as a Damage Control testing ship Little Sand Island, Mobile Bay AB 1988 to 2017, by the Naval Research Laboratory. It seems to have had simulated structures fitted, such as the sail of a submarine and a helicopter airframe. ex-Shadwell was then scrapped in place, as the hull was grounded and heavily deteriorated. The process can be read about here.

    Note the “igloos” fitted over the 40mm AA guns on either side of the bridge. These are rare now, but were almost universally applied to inactive ship fleets from the early postwar, and still quite common over guns (sometimes up to 5″) until the 1990s. USS Shadwell LSD-15, 1968 NH 107627 Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command. Shadwell had been present during the 2 Sep. 1945 surrender ceremonies in Tokyo Bay.

    Scrapping in situ on Little Sand Island, Mobile Bay, has revealed the full extent of the large well deck, innovative for a Second World War design.

    USS Comstock LSD-19 (1945-1976) transferred to Republic of China (Taiwan) as ROCS Chung Cheng (LSD-191) served 1984-2012, sunk as artificial reef 2015

    USS Comstock LSD-19 offloading troops into landing craft at Chu Lai, Vietnam, June 1965 USN 1111760 R.W. Smith, Courtesy of the Naval History and Heritage Command, copyright held by NARA


    Laststandonzombieisland

    The ex-USS Shadwell (LSD-15) is a 7,300-ton, 457-foot gator– the last member of the 19-ship Casa-Grande-class dock landing ships. Commissioned in 1944, she was hit by a torpedo and downed a kamikaze in WWII. She was part of the Third Fleet in Tokyo Bay, Japan, on that fateful day in September 1945 when the war concluded.

    In better days, USS SHADWELL (LSD-15) Mediterranean Sea, June 1968 NHC Catalog K-51142

    After more than 25-years faithful service around the world, she was on 9 March 1970, placed out of commission, and mothballed. In 1976 her name was stricken from the Navy List and she was a warship no more.

    However, the Navy Research Lab’s Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability’s Shipboard Fire Scaling Section operates and maintains Shadwell as the Navy’s full-scale “Real Scale” Damage Control Facility dedicated to integrated Research, Development, Test and Evaluation studies on active and passive fire protection, flooding and chemical (simulants) defense for the past 30 years. As such, she has been renovated and instrumented to a degree that her builders never imagined.

    The Naval Research Laboratory’s ex-USS Shadwell is a decommissioned U.S. Navy Landing Ship Dock that serves as the Navy’s full-scale damage control research, development, test and evaluation platform. Moored in Mobile Bay, Ala., the ship is regularly set ablaze in controlled demonstrations to test firefighting technologies, tactics and procedures and damage control practices to improve the safety of operational Navy and civilian shipboard firefighting measures. (U.S. Navy photo by John F. Williams/Released)

    Among the high-tech systems, the ship has been a testbed for is Virginia Tech’s SAFFiR robotic firefighter built for ONR.

    The Office of Naval Research-sponsored Shipboard Autonomous Firefighting Robot (SAFFiR) undergoes testing aboard the Naval Research Laboratory’s ex-USS Shadwell located in Mobile, Ala. SAFFiR is a bipedal humanoid robot being developed to assist Sailors with damage control and inspection operations aboard naval vessels. (U.S. Navy photo by John F. Williams/Released)

    Based in Mobile Bay since 1988, she is currently on the disposal list.

    Shadwell is to be dismantled in place and all fire testing will be shifted to land-based facilities located at NRLs 168-acre Chesapeake Beach Detachment.

    Below is an All Hands video of her from 2015, highlighting some of what made her so special.


    10 famous geniuses and their drugs of choice

    Is intelligence related to an increased likelihood of recreational drug use? It's an interesting hypothesis, and one that's been gaining momentum in recent years.

    If a definitive link between intellectual capacity and drug use does exist, it will likely be some time before anyone establishes one. Having said that, this much is for certain: History has more than its fair share of experimenting experimentalists. Let's meet 10 of history's most influential scientific and technological visionaries, along with their drugs of choice.

    1. Sigmund Freud — Cocaine

    To Freud, cocaine was more than a personal indulgence he regarded it as a veritable wonder drug, and for many years was a huge proponent of its use in a wide array of applications. In a letter written to his fianceé, Martha, Freud wrote: "If all goes well, I will write an essay [on cocaine] and I expect it will win its place in therapeutics by the side of morphine and superior to it . I take very small doses of it regularly against depression and against indigestion and with the most brilliant of success."

    Freud published such a review, titled "Uber Coca" in 1884. Interestingly, Freud's paper was one of the first to propose drug substitution as a therapeutic treatment for addiction. While replacing morphine with cocaine is something we now know to be counterproductive to recovery, the concept of substitution therapies persists to this day. (For a great overview of Freud's relationship with cocaine, check out this post by Scicurious.)

    2. Francis Crick — LSD

    Francis Crick — of the DNA-structure discovering Watson, Crick and Franklin — reportedly told numerous friends and colleagues about his LSD experimentation during the time he spent working to determine the molecular structure that houses all life's information.

    In fact, in a 2004 interview, Gerrod Harker recalls talking with Dick Kemp — a close friend of Crick's — about LSD use among Cambridge academics, and tells the Daily Mail that the University's researchers often used LSD in small amounts as "a thinking tool." Evidently, Crick at one point told Kemp that he had actually "perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD."

    3. Thomas Edison — Cocaine Elixirs

    In 1863, French chemist Angelo Mariani invented "Vin Mariani," a Bordeaux wine treated with coca leaves, the active ingredient of which is none other than cocaine. The ethanol content in the Bordeaux could extract cocaine from the coca leaves in concentrations exceeding 7 mg per fluid ounce of wine. Thomas Edison — the prolific American inventor and notorious insomniac (though perhaps not surprisingly) — was one of many people of the period known to regularly consume the cocaine-laced elixir.

    4. Paul Erdös — Amphetamines

    Paul Erdös — well known for his hyperactivity his habit of working 19-hour days, even well into his old age and his tendency to show up on his colleagues' doorsteps demanding they ''open their minds'' to mathematical dialogue — was one of the most prolific mathematicians who ever lived, publishing more peer-reviewed papers than any other mathematician in history.

    His secret? According to him, amphetamines. Included here is an excerpt from a book published in 1998 by Erdös' de facto biographer, science writer Paul Hoffman, which explains Erdös' proclivity for amphetamine use:

    Like all of Erdös's friends, [fellow mathematician Ronald Graham] was concerned about his drug-taking. In 1979, Graham bet Erdös $500 that he couldn't stop taking amphetamines for a month. Erdös accepted the challenge, and went cold turkey for thirty days. After Graham paid up — and wrote the $500 off as a business expense — Erdös said, "You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month." He promptly resumed taking pills, and mathematics was the better for it.

    5. Steve Jobs — LSD

    LSD was a big deal for Steve Jobs. How big? Evidently, Jobs believed that experimenting with LSD in the 1960s was "one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life." What's more, he felt that there were parts of him that the people he knew and worked with could not understand, simply because they hadn't had a go at psychedelics. This latter sentiment also comes through in his recently published biography, wherein Jobs goes so far as to associate what he interpreted as Bill Gates' dearth of imagination with a lack of psychedelic experimentation:

    "Bill is basically unimaginative and has never invented anything, which is why I think he's more comfortable now in philanthropy than technology. He just shamelessly ripped off other people's ideas."

    "He'd be a broader guy," Jobs says about Gates, "if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger."

    6. Bill Gates — LSD

    Which is funny, because Bill Gates totally did experiment with LSD, though an excerpt from a 1994 interview with Playboy reveals he was much less open about it than Jobs:

    PLAYBOY: Ever take LSD?
    GATES: My errant youth ended a long time ago.
    PLAYBOY: What does that mean?
    GATES: That means there were things I did under the age of 25 that I ended up not doing subsequently.
    PLAYBOY: One LSD story involved you staring at a table and thinking the corner was going to plunge into your eye.
    GATES: [Smiles]
    PLAYBOY: Ah, a glimmer of recognition.
    GATES: That was on the other side of that boundary. The young mind can deal with certain kinds of gooping around that I don't think at this age I could. I don't think you're as capable of handling lack of sleep or whatever challenges you throw at your body as you get older. However, I never missed a day of work.

    7. John C. Lilly — LSD, Ketamine

    Neurocientist John C. Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins and whales invented the world's first sensory deprivation changer and conducted extensive personal experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD and ketamine.

    It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal psychedelic use and sensory deprivation often overlapped.

    8. Richard Feynman — LSD, Marijuana, Ketamine

    Feynman was always careful about drug use, for fear of what it might do to his brain — giving up alcohol, for example, when he began to exhibit symptoms of addiction. In "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!," he writes, "You see, I get such fun out of thinking that I don't want to destroy this most pleasant machine that makes life such a big kick. It's the same reason that, later on, I was reluctant to try experiments with LSD in spite of my curiosity about hallucinations."

    Nevertheless, Feynman's curiosity got the best of him when he became acquainted with none other than John C. Lilly and his sensory deprivation tanks. Feynman experimented briefly with LSD, ketamine and marijuana, which he used to bring on isolation-induced hallucinations more quickly than he could when sober.

    9. Kary Mullis — LSD

    Who, you may be asking, is Kary Mullis? Let's put it this way: If you've worked in a biomedical research lab since the 1980s, there is an exceedingly good chance you've performed a polymerase chain reaction (aka PCR, the lab technique that can turn a single segment of DNA into millions of identical copies), or are at least familiar with it. You have Mullis to thank for that. While Mullis didn't invent the PCR technique, per se, he improved upon it so significantly as to revolutionize the field of biomedical research, securing himself a Nobel Prize in chemistry in the process.

    The secret to Mullis' breakthrough? In a September 1994 issue of California Monthly, Mullis says that he "took plenty of LSD" In the '60s and '70s, going so far as to call his "mind-opening" experimentation with psychedelics "much more important than any courses [he] ever took." A few years later, in an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Science documentary, Mullis mused aloud: "What if I had not taken LSD ever would I have still invented PCR?" To which he replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."

    10. Carl Sagan — Marijuana

    Preeminent astrophysicist and cosmologist Carl Sagan not only smoked marijuana regularly, he was also a strong advocate for its use in enhancing intellectual pursuits — though not as publicly as others on this list. Having said that, Sagan did contribute an essay to the 1971 book titled "Marijuana Reconsidered" that spoke to the virtues of marijuana use. The piece was penned under the assumed name "Mr. X." The identity of its true author was only revealed after Sagan's death.


    Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece

    Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, view in the chapel of the Hospital of Saint Anthony, Isenheim, c. 1510-15, oil on wood, 9′ 9 1/2″ x 10′ 9″ (Unterlinden Museum, Colmar, France) (photo: vincent desjardins, CC BY 2.0)

    Object of devotion

    If one were to compile a list of the most fantastically weird artistic productions of Renaissance Christianity, top honors might well go to Matthias Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece.

    Constructed and painted between 1512 and 1516, the enormous moveable altarpiece, essentially a box of statues covered by folding wings, was created to serve as the central object of devotion in an Isenheim hospital built by the Brothers of St. Anthony. St. Anthony was a patron saint of those suffering from skin diseases. The pig who usually accompanies him in art is a reference to the use of pork fat to heal skin infections, but it also led to Anthony’s adoption as a patron saint of swineherds, totally unrelated to his reputation for healing and as the patron of basket-weavers, brush-makers and gravediggers (he first lived as an anchorite, a type of religious hermit, in an empty sepulcher).

    At the Isenheim hospital, the Antonine monks devoted themselves to the care of sick and dying peasants, many of them suffering from the effects of ergotism, a disease caused by consuming rye grain infected with fungus. Ergotism, popularly known as St. Anthony’s fire, caused hallucinations, skin infection and attacked the central nervous system, eventually leading to death. It is perhaps not incidental to Grünewald’s vision for his altarpiece that the hallucinogen LSD was eventually isolated from the same strain of fungus.

    Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (fully open position, sculptures by Nicolas of Hagenau), 1510-15

    Sculpted altar

    Sculpted wooden altars were popular in Germany at the time. At the heart of the altarpiece, Nicolas of Hagenau’s central carved and gilded ensemble consists of rather staid, solid and unimaginative representations of three saints important to the Antonine order a bearded and enthroned St. Anthony flanked by standing figures of St. Jerome and St. Augustine. Below, in the carved predella, usually covered by a painted panel, a carved Christ stands at the center of seated apostles, six to each side, grouped in separate groups of three. Hagenau’s interior ensemble is therefore symmetrical, rational, mathematical and replete with numerical perfections – one, three, four and twelve.

    Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), 1510-15

    Painted panels

    Grünewald’s painted panels come from a different world visions of hell on earth, in which the physical and psychological torments that afflicted Christ and a host of saints are rendered as visions wrought in dissonant psychedelic color, and played out by distorted figures—men, women, angels and demons—lit by streaking strident light and placed in eerie other-worldly landscapes. The painted panels fold out to reveal three distinct ensembles. In its common, closed position the central panels close to depict a horrific, night-time Crucifixion.

    Crucifixion (detail), Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1510-15

    The macabre and distorted Christ is splayed on the cross, his hands writhing in agony, his body marked with livid spots of pox. The Virgin swoons into the waiting arms of the young St. John the Evangelist while John the Baptist, on the other side (not commonly depicted at the Crucifixion), gestures towards the suffering body at the center and holds a scroll which reads “he must increase, but I must decrease.” The emphatic physical suffering was intended to be thaumaturgic (miracle performing), a point of identification for the denizens of the hospital. The flanking panels depict St. Sebastian, long known as a plague saint because of his body pocked by arrows, and St. Anthony Abbot.

    Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (second position), 1510-15

    The second position emphasizes this promise of resurrection. Its panels depict the Annunciation, the Virgin and Child with a host of musical angels, and the Resurrection. The progression from left to right is a highlight reel of Christ’s life.

    Crucifixion (detail), Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1510-15

    In the predella panel is a Lamentation, the sprawling and horrifyingly punctured dead body of Christ is presented as an invitation to contemplate mortality and resurrection.

    Idiosyncratic visions

    Virgin and child (detail), Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece,1510-15

    All three scenes are, however, highly idiosyncratic and personal visions of Biblical exegesis the musical angels, in their Gothic bandstand, are lit by an eerie orange-yellow light while the adjacent Madonna of Humility sits in a twilight landscape lit by flickering, fiery atmospheric clouds.

    Resurrection and Annunciation panels , Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1510-15

    The Resurrection panel is the strangest of these inner visions. Christ is wreathed in orange, red and yellow body halos and rises like a streaking fireball, hovering over the sepulcher and the bodies of the sleeping soldiers, a combination of Transfiguration, Resurrection and Ascension.

    Far left and far right panels seen when altarpiece is fully open (here illustrated sided-by-side). The Temptations of Saint Anthony (left), Anthony visited by Saint Paul (right), Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1510-15

    Hybrid demons

    Grünewald saves his most esoteric visions for the fully open position of the altar, in the two inner panels that flank the central sculptures. On the left, St. Anthony is visited in the blasted-out wilderness by St. Paul (the first hermit of the desert)— the two are about to be fed by the raven in the tree above, and Anthony will later be called upon to bury St. Paul. The meeting cured St. Anthony of the misperception that he was the first desert hermit, and was therefore a lesson in humility.

    Temptations of Saint Anthony panel (detail), Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1510-15

    In the final panel, Grünewald lets his imagination run riot in the depiction of St. Anthony’s temptations in the desert sublime hybrid demons, like Daliesque dreams, torment Anthony’s waking and sleeping hours, bringing to life the saint’s torment and mirroring the physical and psychic suffering of the hospital patients.

    Grünewald’s mastery of medieval monstrosity echoes and evokes Hieronymus Bosch and has inspired artists ever since. The entire altarpiece is a paean to human suffering and an essay on faith and the hope for heaven in the troubled years before the Reformation.


    The 30 Most Disturbing Human Experiments in History

    Disturbing human experiments aren’t something the average person thinks too much about. Rather, the progress achieved in the last 150 years of human history is an accomplishment we’re reminded of almost daily. Achievements made in fields like biomedicine and psychology mean that we no longer need to worry about things like deadly diseases or masturbation as a form of insanity. For better or worse, we have developed more effective ways to gather information, treat skin abnormalities, and even kill each other. But what we are not constantly reminded of are the human lives that have been damaged or lost in the name of this progress. The following is a list of the 30 most disturbing human experiments in history.

    30. The Tearoom Sex Study

    Image Source Sociologist Laud Humphreys often wondered about the men who commit impersonal sexual acts with one another in public restrooms. He wondered why “tearoom sex” — fellatio in public restrooms — led to the majority of homosexual arrests in the United States. Humphreys decided to become a “watchqueen” (the person who keeps watch and coughs when a cop or stranger get near) for his Ph.D. dissertation at Washington University. Throughout his research, Humphreys observed hundreds of acts of fellatio and interviewed many of the participants. He found that 54% of his subjects were married, and 38% were very clearly neither bisexual or homosexual. Humphreys’ research shattered a number of stereotypes held by both the public and law enforcement.

    29. Prison Inmates as Test Subjects

    Image Source In 1951, Dr. Albert M. Kligman, a dermatologist at the University of Pennsylvania and future inventor of Retin-A, began experimenting on inmates at Philadelphia’s Holmesburg Prison. As Kligman later told a newspaper reporter, “All I saw before me were acres of skin. It was like a farmer seeing a field for the first time.” Over the next 20 years, inmates willingly allowed Kligman to use their bodies in experiments involving toothpaste, deodorant, shampoo, skin creams, detergents, liquid diets, eye drops, foot powders, and hair dyes. Though the tests required constant biopsies and painful procedures, none of the inmates experienced long-term harm.

    28. Henrietta Lacks

    Image Source In 1955, Henrietta Lacks, a poor, uneducated African-American woman from Baltimore, was the unwitting source of cells which where then cultured for the purpose of medical research. Though researchers had tried to grow cells before, Henrietta’s were the first successfully kept alive and cloned. Henrietta’s cells, known as HeLa cells, have been instrumental in the development of the polio vaccine, cancer research, AIDS research, gene mapping, and countless other scientific endeavors. Henrietta died penniless and was buried without a tombstone in a family cemetery. For decades, her husband and five children were left in the dark about their wife and mother’s amazing contribution to modern medicine.

    27. Project QKHILLTOP

    Image Source In 1954, the CIA developed an experiment called Project QKHILLTOP to study Chinese brainwashing techniques, which they then used to develop new methods of interrogation. Leading the research was Dr. Harold Wolff of Cornell University Medical School. After requesting that the CIA provide him with information on imprisonment, deprivation, humiliation, torture, brainwashing, hypnoses, and more, Wolff’s research team began to formulate a plan through which they would develop secret drugs and various brain damaging procedures. According to a letter he wrote, in order to fully test the effects of the harmful research, Wolff expected the CIA to “make available suitable subjects.”

    26. Stateville Penitentiary Malaria Study

    Image Source During World War II, malaria and other tropical diseases were impeding the efforts of American military in the Pacific. In order to get a grip, the Malaria Research Project was established at Stateville Penitentiary in Joliet, Illinois. Doctors from the University of Chicago exposed 441 volunteer inmates to bites from malaria-infected mosquitos. Though one inmate died of a heart attack, researchers insisted his death was unrelated to the study. The widely-praised experiment continued at Stateville for 29 years, and included the first human test of Primaquine, a medication still used in the treatment of malaria and Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    25. Emma Eckstein and Sigmund Freud

    Image Source Despite seeking the help of Sigmund Freud for vague symptoms like stomach ailments and slight depression, 27-year old Emma Eckstein was “treated” by the German doctor for hysteria and excessive masturbation, a habit then considered dangerous to mental health. Emma’s treatment included a disturbing experimental surgery in which she was anesthetized with only a local anesthetic and cocaine before the inside of her nose was cauterized. Not surprisingly, Emma’s surgery was a disaster. Whether Emma was a legitimate medical patient or a source of more amorous interest for Freud, as a recent movie suggests, Freud continued to treat Emma for three years.

    24. Dr. William Beaumont and the Stomach

    Image Source In 1822, a fur trader on Mackinac Island in Michigan was accidentally shot in the stomach and treated by Dr. William Beaumont. Despite dire predictions, the fur trader survived — but with a hole (fistula) in his stomach that never healed. Recognizing the unique opportunity to observe the digestive process, Beaumont began conducting experiments. Beaumont would tie food to a string, then insert it through the hole in the trader’s stomach. Every few hours, Beaumont would remove the food to observe how it had been digested. Though gruesome, Beaumont’s experiments led to the worldwide acceptance that digestion was a chemical, not a mechanical, process.

    23. Electroshock Therapy on Children

    Image Source In the 1960s, Dr. Lauretta Bender of New York’s Creedmoor Hospital began what she believed to be a revolutionary treatment for children with social issues — electroshock therapy. Bender’s methods included interviewing and analyzing a sensitive child in front of a large group, then applying a gentle amount of pressure to the child’s head. Supposedly, any child who moved with the pressure was showing early signs of schizophrenia. Herself the victim of a misunderstood childhood, Bender was said to be unsympathetic to the children in her care. By the time her treatments were shut down, Bender had used electroshock therapy on over 100 children, the youngest of whom was age three.

    22. Project Artichoke

    Image Source In the 1950s, the CIA’s Office of Scientific Intelligence ran a series of mind control projects in an attempt to answer the question “Can we get control of an individual to the point where he will do our bidding against his will and even against fundamental laws of nature?” One of these programs, Project Artichoke, studied hypnosis, forced morphine addiction, drug withdrawal, and the use of chemicals to incite amnesia in unwitting human subjects. Though the project was eventually shut down in the mid-1960s, the project opened the door to extensive research on the use of mind-control in field operations.

    21. Hepatitis in Mentally Disabled Children

    Image Source In the 1950s, Willowbrook State School, a New York state-run institution for mentally handicapped children, began experiencing outbreaks of hepatitis. Due to unsanitary conditions, it was virtually inevitable that these children would contract hepatitis. Dr. Saul Krugman, sent to investigate the outbreak, proposed an experiment that would assist in developing a vaccine. However, the experiment required deliberately infecting children with the disease. Though Krugman’s study was controversial from the start, critics were eventually silenced by the permission letters obtained from each child’s parents. In reality, offering one’s child to the experiment was oftentimes the only way to guarantee admittance into the overcrowded institution.

    20. Operation Midnight Climax

    Image Source Initially established in the 1950s as a sub-project of a CIA-sponsored, mind-control research program, Operation Midnight Climax sought to study the effects of LSD on individuals. In San Francisco and New York, unconsenting subjects were lured to safehouses by prostitutes on the CIA payroll, unknowingly given LSD and other mind-altering substances, and monitored from behind one-way glass. Though the safehouses were shut down in 1965, when it was discovered that the CIA was administering LSD to human subjects, Operation Midnight Climax was a theater for extensive research on sexual blackmail, surveillance technology, and the use of mind-altering drugs on field operations.

    19. Study of Humans Accidentally Exposed to Fallout Radiation

    Image Source The 1954 “Study of Response of Human Beings exposed to Significant Beta and Gamma Radiation due to Fall-out from High-Yield Weapons,” known better as Project 4.1, was a medical study conducted by the U.S. of residents of the Marshall Islands. When the Castle Bravo nuclear test resulted in a yield larger than originally expected, the government instituted a top secret study to “evaluate the severity of radiation injury” to those accidentally exposed. Though most sources agree the exposure was unintentional, many Marshallese believed Project 4.1 was planned before the Castle Bravo test. In all, 239 Marshallese were exposed to significant levels of radiation.

    18. The Monster Study

    Image Source In 1939, University of Iowa researchers Wendell Johnson and Mary Tudor conducted a stuttering experiment on 22 orphan children in Davenport, Iowa. The children were separated into two groups, the first of which received positive speech therapy where children were praised for speech fluency. In the second group, children received negative speech therapy and were belittled for every speech imperfection. Normal-speaking children in the second group developed speech problems which they then retained for the rest of their lives. Terrified by the news of human experiments conducted by the Nazis, Johnson and Tudor never published the results of their “Monster Study.”

    17. Project MKUltra

    Image Source Project MKUltra is the code name of a CIA-sponsored research operation that experimented in human behavioral engineering. From 1953 to 1973, the program employed various methodologies to manipulate the mental states of American and Canadian citizens. These unwitting human test subjects were plied with LSD and other mind-altering drugs, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation, verbal and sexual abuse, and various forms of torture. Research occurred at universities, hospitals, prisons, and pharmaceutical companies. Though the project sought to develop “chemical […] materials capable of employment in clandestine operations,” Project MKUltra was ended by a Congress-commissioned investigation into CIA activities within the U.S.

    16. Experiments on Newborns

    Image Source In the 1960s, researchers at the University of California began an experiment to study changes in blood pressure and blood flow. The researchers used 113 newborns ranging in age from one hour to three days old as test subjects. In one experiment, a catheter was inserted through the umbilical arteries and into the aorta. The newborn’s feet were then immersed in ice water for the purpose of testing aortic pressure. In another experiment, up to 50 newborns were individually strapped onto a circumcision board, then tilted so that their blood rushed to their head and their blood pressure could be monitored.

    15. The Aversion Project

    Image Source In 1969, during South Africa’s detestable Apartheid era, thousands of homosexuals were handed over to the care of Dr. Aubrey Levin, an army colonel and psychologist convinced he could “cure” homosexuals. At the Voortrekkerhoogte military hospital near Pretoria, Levin used electroconvulsive aversion therapy to “reorientate” his patients. Electrodes were strapped to a patient’s upper arm with wires running to a dial calibrated from 1 to 10. Homosexual men were shown pictures of a naked man and encouraged to fantasize, at which point the patient was subjected to severe shocks. When Levin was warned that he would be named an abuser of human rights, he emigrated to Canada where he currently works at a teaching hospital.

    14. Medical Experiments on Prison Inmates

    Image Source Perhaps one benefit of being an inmate at California’s San Quentin prison is the easy access to acclaimed Bay Area doctors. But if that’s the case, then a downside is that these doctors also have easy access to inmates. From 1913 to 1951, Dr. Leo Stanley, chief surgeon at San Quentin, used prisoners as test subjects in a variety of bizarre medical experiments. Stanley’s experiments included sterilization and potential treatments for the Spanish Flu. In one particularly disturbing experiment, Stanley performed testicle transplants on living prisoners using testicles from executed prisoners and, in some cases, from goats and boars.

    13. Sexual Reassignment

    Image Source In 1965, Canadian David Peter Reimer was born biologically male. But at seven months old, his penis was accidentally destroyed during an unconventional circumcision by cauterization. John Money, a psychologist and proponent of the idea that gender is learned, convinced the Reimers that their son would be more likely to achieve a successful, functional sexual maturation as a girl. Though Money continued to report only success over the years, David’s own account insisted that he had never identified as female. He spent his childhood teased, ostracized, and seriously depressed. At age 38, David committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.

    12. Effect of Radiation on Testicles

    Image Source Between 1963 and 1973, dozens of Washington and Oregon prison inmates were used as test subjects in an experiment designed to test the effects of radiation on testicles. Bribed with cash and the suggestion of parole, 130 inmates willingly agreed to participate in the experiments conducted by the University of Washington on behalf of the U.S. government. In most cases, subjects were zapped with over 400 rads of radiation (the equivalent of 2,400 chest x-rays) in 10 minute intervals. However, it was much later that the inmates learned the experiments were far more dangerous than they had been told. In 2000, the former participants settled a $2.4 million class-action settlement from the University.

    11. Stanford Prison Experiment

    Image Source Conducted at Stanford University from August 14-20, 1971, the Stanford Prison Experiment was an investigation into the causes of conflict between military guards and prisoners. Twenty-four male students were chosen and randomly assigned roles of prisoners and guards. They were then situated in a specially-designed mock prison in the basement of the Stanford psychology building. Those subjects assigned to be guards enforced authoritarian measures and subjected the prisoners to psychological torture. Surprisingly, many of the prisoners accepted the abuses. Though the experiment exceeded the expectations of all of the researchers, it was abruptly ended after only six days.

    10. Syphilis Experiments in Guatemala

    Image Source From 1946 to 1948, the United States government, Guatemalan president Juan José Arévalo, and some Guatemalan health ministries, cooperated in a disturbing human experiment on unwitting Guatemalan citizens. Doctors deliberately infected soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners, and mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases in an attempt to track their untreated natural progression. Treated only with antibiotics, the experiment resulted in at least 30 documented deaths. In 2010, the United States made a formal apology to Guatemala for their involvement in these experiments.

    9. Tuskegee Syphilis Study

    Image Source In 1932, the U.S. Public Health Service began working with the Tuskegee Institute to track the natural progression of untreated syphilis. Six hundred poor, illiterate, male sharecroppers were found and hired in Macon County, Alabama. Of the 600 men, only 399 had previously contracted syphilis, and none were told they had a life threatening disease. Instead, they were told they were receiving free healthcare, meals, and burial insurance in exchange for participating. Even after Penicillin was proven an effective cure for syphilis in 1947, the study continued until 1972. In addition to the original subjects, victims of the study included wives who contracted the disease, and children born with congenital syphilis. In 1997, President Bill Clinton formally apologized to those affected by what is often called the “most infamous biomedical experiment in U.S. history.”

    8. Milgram Experiment

    In 1961, Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, began a series of social psychology experiments that measured the willingness of test subjects to obey an authority figure. Conducted only three months after the start of the trial of German Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, Milgram’s experiment sought to answer the question, “Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders?” In the experiment, two participants (one secretly an actor and one an unwitting test subject) were separated into two rooms where they could hear, but not see, each other. The test subject would then read a series of questions to the actor, punishing each wrong answer with an electric shock. Though many people would indicate their desire to stop the experiment, almost all subjects continued when they were told they would not be held responsible, or that there would not be any permanent damage.

    7. Infected Mosquitos in Towns

    Image Source In 1956 and 1957, the United States Army conducted a number of biological warfare experiments on the cities of Savannah, Georgia and Avon Park, Florida. In one such experiment, millions of infected mosquitos were released into the two cities, in order to see if the insects could spread yellow fever and dengue fever. Not surprisingly, hundreds of researchers contracted illnesses that included fevers, respiratory problems, stillbirths, encephalitis, and typhoid. In order to photograph the results of their experiments, Army researchers pretended to be public health workers. Several people died as a result of the research.

    6. Human Experimentation in the Soviet Union

    Image Source Beginning in 1921 and continuing for most of the 21st century, the Soviet Union employed poison laboratories known as Laboratory 1, Laboratory 12, and Kamera as covert research facilities of the secret police agencies. Prisoners from the Gulags were exposed to a number of deadly poisons, the purpose of which was to find a tasteless, odorless chemical that could not be detected post mortem. Tested poisons included mustard gas, ricin, digitoxin, and curare, among others. Men and women of varying ages and physical conditions were brought to the laboratories and given the poisons as “medication,” or part of a meal or drink.

    5. Human Experimentation in North Korea

    Image Source Several North Korean defectors have described witnessing disturbing cases of human experimentation. In one alleged experiment, 50 healthy women prisoners were given poisoned cabbage leaves — all 50 women were dead within 20 minutes. Other described experiments include the practice of surgery on prisoners without anesthesia, purposeful starvation, beating prisoners over the head before using the zombie-like victims for target practice, and chambers in which whole families are murdered with suffocation gas. It is said that each month, a black van known as “the crow” collects 40-50 people from a camp and takes them to an known location for experiments.

    4. Nazi Human Experimentation

    Image Source Over the course of the Third Reich and the Holocaust, Nazi Germany conducted a series of medical experiments on Jews, POWs, Romani, and other persecuted groups. The experiments were conducted in concentration camps, and in most cases resulted in death, disfigurement, or permanent disability. Especially disturbing experiments included attempts to genetically manipulate twins bone, muscle, and nerve transplantation exposure to diseases and chemical gasses sterilization, and anything else the infamous Nazi doctors could think up. After the war, these crimes were tried as part of the Nuremberg Trial and ultimately led to the development of the Nuremberg Code of medical ethics.

    3. Unit 731

    Image Source From 1937 to 1945, the imperial Japanese Army developed a covert biological and chemical warfare research experiment called Unit 731. Based in the large city of Harbin, Unit 731 was responsible for some of the most atrocious war crimes in history. Chinese and Russian subjects — men, women, children, infants, the elderly, and pregnant women — were subjected to experiments which included the removal of organs from a live body, amputation for the study of blood loss, germ warfare attacks, and weapons testing. Some prisoners even had their stomachs surgically removed and their esophagus reattached to the intestines. Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 rose to prominent careers in politics, academia, business, and medicine.

    2. Radioactive Materials in Pregnant Women

    Image Source Shortly after World War II, with the impending Cold War forefront on the minds of Americans, many medical researchers were preoccupied with the idea of radioactivity and chemical warfare. In an experiment at Vanderbilt University, 829 pregnant women were given “vitamin drinks” they were told would improve the health of their unborn babies. Instead, the drinks contained radioactive iron and the researchers were studying how quickly the radioisotope crossed into the placenta. At least seven of the babies later died from cancers and leukemia, and the women themselves experienced rashes, bruises, anemia, loss of hair and tooth, and cancer.


    1950 – 1970 [ edit | edit source ]

    On 20 September 1950, Shadwell was recommissioned at Orange, Texas. She operated for the next five years in the western Atlantic and Caribbean. Ranging as far north as Labrador, Greenland, and Newfoundland, Shadwell participated in several Arctic Circle expeditions and exercises including "Bluejay" and "Convex" in 1951 and "Pinetree" in 1953. The remainder of her time was spent along the eastern seaboard and in the Caribbean.

    On Friday, 4 February 1955 Customs Inspector George M. Bacon was killed when he tripped and fell aboard the USS Shadwell, which was docked in Hampton Roads. The vessel had just returned from a tour of the Caribbean and had requested Customs clearance. Inspector Bacon fell approximately 20 feet into the interior dock-well, resulting in significant trauma to his head. He was pronounced dead on the ship. Inspector Bacon was a U.S. Army veteran of World War I veteran and had served with the United States Customs Service for several years. He was survived by his wife, two sons, grandson and brother.

    In 1956, after one Caribbean operation, Shadwell departed Norfolk for a tour of duty with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Thus she began a schedule of deployments, alternating Atlantic-Caribbean duty with cruises in the Mediterranean, which lasted until she was decommissioned in 1971.

    Ten times, during the intervening 15 years, Shadwell cruised the "middle sea" and visited its ports of call. In 1959, Shadwell became the first helicopter-carrying dock landing ship (She had her call letters changed from LSD to LPH when she carried helicopters ). In 1961, she underwent a Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) overhaul. She was in the Atlantic supporting the Cuban quarantine in October 1962. In February 1964, she participated in the amphibious exercise "Quick Kick V" on the coast of South Carolina. Seven months later, during the passage to her sixth Mediterranean deployment, Shadwell took part in Operation "Steel Pike" executed off the coast of Spain. In 1967, she won the Marjorie Sterrett Battleship Fund Award for the Atlantic Fleet. In January 1968, she was in the Caribbean engaged in Operation "Spring Board." On 8 July 1969, she was involved in a night-time collision with the Cambria (APA-36) off Malta. Ώ] The CO who had just taken command a few days earlier was relieved. [ citation needed ]

    During August 1969, Shadwell departed the Mediterranean after a five-month deployment. She entered Little Creek, Virginia, on the 19th to begin inactivation overhaul. Eight months later, on 9 March 1970, she was placed out of commission, in reserve. On 9 September, Shadwell was transferred to the James River, Virginia, group of the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Shadwell was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 November 1976.


    Shadwell LSD-15 - History

    April 05, 2021 - 15 Most Wanted Addition - The U.S. Marshals are intensifying the manhunt for a former Marine turned murder suspect. Raymond Samuel “RJ” McLeod, Jr., is now a 15 Most Wanted fugitive, and the first fugitive to make his debut on the list with a reward of up to $50,000 for information directly leading to his arrest. McLeod, 37, is wanted by the San Diego Police Department for the 2016 murder of 30-year-old Krystal Mitchell, and authorities believe he fled the country and is hiding out in Central America or Mexico. read more

    The following individuals are considered armed and dangerous. Do not attempt to apprehend any of these fugitives yourself. Anyone with information is urged to contact the nearest USMS District Office, the U.S. Marshals Service Communications Center at 1-800-336-0102 , or submit a tip using USMS Tips.

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