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Military Commander, Sanliurfa

Military Commander, Sanliurfa


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Space Force officer fired after criticizing Marxism, critical race theory in the military

A Space Force commander was fired last week after public comments made while promoting his book criticizing Marxist ideals in the military.

Military.com first reported that 11th Space Warning Squadron commander Lt Col. Matthew Lohmeier was fired over “a loss of confidence in his ability to lead” after he joined L. Todd Wood’s “Information Operation” podcast to promote his self-published book, “Irresistible Revolution: Marxism’s Goal of Conquest & the Unmaking of the American Military.”

A Space Force spokesperson told Military.com that Lohmeier’s firing was “based on public comments made by Lt. Col. Lohmeier in a recent podcast,” adding that “Lt. Gen. Whiting has initiated a Command Directed Investigation on whether these comments constituted prohibited partisan political activity.”

On the podcast, Lohmeier – a former fighter pilot and instructor – criticized the military’s expanded diversity and inclusion training and focused mission to root out extremism in the ranks – efforts spearheaded by Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin.

He said the policies are “rooted in critical race theory, which is rooted in Marxism” and impacting the culture of the military. Those changes “will divide us, it will not unify us,” Lohmeier said.

Lohmeier said he was given a 70-page booklet on extremism training “talking points” with which to train his squadron. Among those talking points were examples including the Jan. 6 storming of the U.S. Capitol as an act of extremism.

The Hatch Act and DoD Directive 1344.10 prohibit service members from demonstrating support or opposition to a political group or party while in uniform, on duty, or in or on federal property.

Service members are permitted to express personal political opinions in public while off duty, however, so long as those opinions don’t negatively reflect on the Army.

A description of Lohmeier’s book says it examines “the history and overarching narrative of Marxist ideology” including its impact on military culture and policy, and future implications “if we choose not to make an immediate course correction.”

Lohmeier told Military.com that he discussed his book with public affairs and lawyers, but the book did not require a Department of Defense security review.

“My intent never has been to engage in partisan politics. I have written a book about a particular political ideology (Marxism) in the hope that our Defense Department might return to being politically nonpartisan in the future as it has honorably done throughout history,” Lohmeier told Military.com

Republican Rep. Matt Gaetz tweeted in support of Lohmeier on Sunday, saying the firing was “clearly retaliatory” and adding, “I will be seeking action on this in the Armed Services Committee.”

Lt. Col. Lohmeier is a Patriot telling the truth about the attempted wokeification of our military – and worse.


Turkish Military Opens Command Center For Future Operation In Northeastern Syria

On March 30, Turkey’s Defense Minister, Hulusi Akar, and Chief of General Staff, Gen. Yasar Gulero, inaugurated a center in southeastern province of Sanliurfa that will manage any possible military operation east of the Euphrates River in northern Syria.

The two commanders also inspected Turkish forces deployed near the Syrian border in Sanliurfa, according to the Anadolu Agency.

The new command center reflects Turkey’s determination to end the current situation in northeastern Syria, where US-backed Kurdish forces have established a self-administration. Turkey consider these forces a threat to its national security and recognize some of them, like the People’s Protection Units (YPG), as terrorist groups.

Earlier, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan vowed to solve the issue of northeastern Syria “on the field” after the upcoming local elections, which is set to be held on March 31. The Turkish President warned that his country will not tolerate a “terrorist corridor” on its southern border.

“We have taught the necessary lesson to those who tried to do that and we will do the same to them in the future,” Erdogan said.


Contents

Cold War Edit

Originally, Allied Forces Southern Europe was one of two major NATO commands in the Mediterranean area, the other being Allied Forces Mediterranean based on the island of Malta, responsible for naval activities in the region. While Admiral Robert B. Carney of the U.S. Navy was appointed as Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe (CinCAFSOUTH) on 19 June 1951, [4] AFMED was not activated until 1953. The delay was due to negotiations and compromises between the Americans and the British, who wished to retain one of their commanders over Britain's traditional sea lines of communication stretching through the Mediterranean to the Suez Canal and beyond. From 1951 to 2003, the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe was always a United States Navy admiral, based at Naples, who also held the US Navy position of Commander-in-Chief United States Naval Forces Europe and functioned as the Navy service component commander for United States European Command within the US-only chain of command. AFSOUTH headquarters was established at Nisida island, Naples.

The initial command arrangements for AFSOUTH consisted of the classic three land, sea, and air headquarters preferred by Eisenhower. Allied Land Forces Southern Europe (LANDSOUTH), Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe (NAVSOUTH), and Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (AIRSOUTH) were all established in Italy. [5] Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in early 1952. [6] [7] On 8 September 1952, a new allied land command, Allied Land Forces South-Eastern Europe (LANDSOUTHEAST), was created with its headquarters in Izmir, Turkey, under the command of a U.S. officer, Lieutenant General Willard G. Wyman. [8] Under this command, with its headquarters in Izmir assisted by the subordinate Thessaloniki Advanced Command Post, were to be most of the Greek and Turkish armies in case of war.

The first AIRSOUTH commander became U.S. Major General David M. Schlatter, USAF. On 14 October 1953, the Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force was also established in Izmir, commanded by Major General R.E.L. Easton, USAF, and responsible to Allied Air Forces Southern Europe for the air defence of Greece and Turkey. [8] Three national air Commands were assigned to it: the Turkish 1st and 3rd Tactical Air Forces, and the Greek Air Force's Royal Hellenic 28th Tactical Air Force. In terms of actual forces this meant two Greek wings and four Turkish fighter-bomber groups of F-84 aircraft, plus some B-26A Mosquitoes.

Later in 1953, the various national naval forces within Allied Forces Mediterranean were organised into six Sub-Principal Subordinate Commands (Sub-PSCs), each commanded by an Admiral (including one French (MEDOC), one Greek, one Turkish, one Italian and two British). In time of war, CINCAFMED would be responsible for securing the Sea lines of communications throughout the Mediterranean Sea. [6]

Some of AFSOUTH's first exercises took place in 1952. Operation Ancient Wall was a series of military maneuvers involving ground small unit tactical training, land-based tactical air support, and carrier-based air support under the overall command of Admiral Carney. [9] Exercise Grand Slam was a combined naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea between 25 February to 16 March 1952. The exercise included allied warships escorting three convoys of supply ships which were subjected to repeated simulated air and submarine attacks, as well as anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations and naval gunfire shore bombardment. [10] Operation Longstep was a ten-day naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea held during November 1952. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft, and it featured a large-scale amphibious assault along the western coast of Turkey. [11]

1953 AFSOUTH exercises included:

  • "Italic Weld" — a combined air-naval-ground exercise in northern Italy involving the United States, Italy, Turkey, and Greece [12]
  • "Weldfast" — a combined amphibious landing exercise in the Mediterranean Sea involving British, Greek, Italian, Turkish, and U.S. naval forces [12]

In 1957, Operation Deep Water simulated the defence of the Dardanelles from a Soviet attack. The exercise included an 8,000 strong amphibious landing.

The drawdown of the British Mediterranean Fleet, the military difficulties of the politically-decided command structure, and the withdrawal of the French from the military command structure forced a rearrangement of the command arrangements in the southern region. Allied Forces Mediterranean was disbanded on 5 June 1967, and all forces in the south and the Mediterranean assigned to AFSOUTH. [1]

AFSOUTH continued to conduct exercises in the 1960s and 1970s, among which was exercise 'Dawn Patrol,' a five-nation naval and air exercise conducted throughout the Mediterranean in 1974. [13] The U.S. contribution to the exercise was based on the USS America carrier battle group. During the 1960s Exercise Deep Furrow appears to have been held annually. Deep Furrow, will be conducted from 20–29 September 1973 in the southern region of Allied Command Europe. Forces from Greece, Turkey and other countries in AF South Command will participate in Exercise Deep Furrow 73, which is scheduled annually by CINCSOUTH. Land forces will hold maneuvers in Greek and Turkish Thrace and naval Force will exercise in the Eastern Mediterranean, including the Aegean Sea naval activities will include amphibious and carrier operations. As part of the exercise, ground units will be airlifted from their home stations in the United Kingdom and the United States to northwestern Turkey, where Turkish National Forces will execute plans for receiving them. Turkish National Forces will also conduct operations with Hellenic Armed Forces and NATO air units providing fighter-bomber and reconnaissance support throughout the area of operations. Highlights of the exercise in Turkish Thrace will be a multi-national amphibious landing on 25 September 1973 and a multinational airborne operation on 26 September 1973.

From 1967 the overall shape of AFSOUTH did not significantly change until the command was renamed in 2004. There were five principal subordinate commands (PSCs). [14] The number rose to six when Greece was taking part in the military structure Greece withdrew from the NATO military structure after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, and after some behind the scenes negotiating by NATO officials, returned in October 1980. Two land commands, Allied Land Forces Southern Europe and Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe, were tasked to defend Italy and Turkey respectively. Each was directly responsible to Commander-in-Chief, AFSOUTH, and supported by a tactical air force, Fifth Allied Tactical Air Force in Italy and Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force in Turkey. The two allied tactical air forces were under an overall air command, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, headquartered at Naples in Italy under a United States Air Force officer, ComAirSouth, responsible himself to CinCAFSOUTH. [15] ComAirSouth held the U.S. national appointment of Commander Sixteenth Air Force for a long period.

Due to political considerations, command of the naval forces in the region was split. Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe, at Naples, operated most of the NATO allies' naval forces in the Mediterranean under an Italian admiral. But due to the U.S. desire to retain control of their nuclear-armed naval forces, [16] the United States Sixth Fleet reported directly to CinCAFSOUTH, supported by a separate headquarters named Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe (STRIKFORSOUTH).

The sixth command was an Allied command responsible for the land defence of Greece, named Allied Land Forces South-Central Europe or LANDSOUTHCENT. However it is not certain that it actually was ever operational, with the 1998/99 NATO Handbook listing it as 'yet to be activated.' Below these PSCs were smaller headquarters such as Maritime Air Forces, Mediterranean, at Sigonella, Sicily, responsible for coordination of the aerial anti-submarine effort, Submarine Forces, South, [17] and the Naval On-Call Force Mediterranean, a multinational escort squadron activated at intervals.

Structure in 1989 Edit

At the end of the Cold War consisted of the following commands:

  • Allied Command Europe, in Mons, Belgium
    • Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH), in Naples, Italy
      • Allied Land Forces Southern Europe (LANDSOUTH), in Verona, Italy
          , in Milan , in Bolzano , in Vittorio Veneto
        • , in Istanbul in Malatya , in Erzincan
      • (5 ATAF), in Vicenza, Italy (6 ATAF), in İzmir, Turkey
  • Seventh Allied Tactical Air Force (7 ATAF) in Larissa, Greece, a planned command for the Greek Air Force, but never actually established
    • Commander Gibraltar Mediterranean (COMGIBMED), in Gibraltar, under a Royal NavyRear Admiral, who doubled as Commander British Forces Gibraltar
    • Commander Western Mediterranean (COMMEDWEST), under a French Navy admiral, until 1962 in Algiers, then Toulon, after France left NATO's integrated command structure in 1966 the command was absorbed by NAVSOUTH
    • Commander Central Mediterranean (COMEDCENT), in Naples, under an Italian Navy admiral (COMEDEAST), in Athens, under a Greek Navy admiral
    • Commander South-Eastern Mediterranean (COMMEDSOUTHEAST), under a British admiral in Malta, after the disbanding of the Mediterranean Fleet, the command was absorbed by NAVSOUTH
    • Commander North-eastern Mediterranean (COMEDNOREAST), in Ankara, under a Turkish Navy admiral (includes the Black Sea)
    • Commander Maritime Air Forces Mediterranean (COMMARAIRMED), at Naval Air Station Sigonella, Italy, under Commander US Navy Fleet Air Wing Mediterranean
    • Commander Submarines Mediterranean (COMSUBMED), in Naples, under Commander US Navy Submarine Group 8

    Post Cold War Edit

    From 1992 AFSOUTH was heavily involved in NATO operations in the Balkans, initially with NATO seaborne enforcement of a UN arms embargo, Operation 'Maritime Monitor,' which began in July 1992. This operation was fused with a similar Western European Union effort and thus became Operation Sharp Guard from July 1993. AFSOUTH also directed activities such as Operation Deny Flight from AIRSOUTH headquarters in Italy. Commander-in-Chief AFSOUTH directed the NATO peacekeeping missions in Bosnia & Hercegovina, IFOR and SFOR, from December 1995. While technically in charge of KFOR from mid-1999, General Sir Mike Jackson's autobiography, Soldier, indicates General Wesley Clark at SHAPE in Belgium directly supervised many of KFOR's activities, without going through AFSOUTH, at least during the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps' tour as HQ KFOR in 1999.

    Beginning 10 July 1951, Headquarters Allied Land Forces Southern Europe was responsible for the defence of the Italian North-Eastern sector, in cooperation with other NATO nations. During the intervening 40 years, the HQ produced plans and studies to counter a potential invasion by the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. After 53 years in the city of Verona, what had become Joint Command South (JCS) closed its doors on 15 June 2004. [18] Also closing was Joint Headquarters Southwest in Madrid and Joint Headquarters Southeast/Joint Command Southeast in Izmir.

    Joint Force Command Naples Edit

    The reorganisation of AFSOUTH as JFC Naples in 2004 was a part of NATO’s transformation, initiated by the Prague summit of 2002, aimed at adapting the allied military structure to the operational challenges of coalition warfare, to face the emerging threats in the new millennium. The new NATO Command Structure is leaner, and focused on conducting a much wider range of missions.

    NHQ Sarajevo remains operational, and also NATO Headquarters Tirana, an outgrowth of the former Kosovo Force (KFOR) Communications Zone West originally established in 1999. Communication Zone West was retitled NHQ Tirana on 17 June 2002, [19] and it now performs a Defence Reform and Security Sector Reform advisory role, aiming to support the Albanian Armed Forces, now a member of NATO.

    In 2013 a further command structure reorganisation began to take effect. Allied Maritime Command Naples, [20] Allied Air Command İzmir [21] and Allied Force Command Madrid were all deactivated. [22]

    From 2013 Allied Command Operations started directing the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum and Allied Joint Force Command Naples, and three component commands, Allied Air Command at Ramstein, Germany, Allied Land Command at Izmir, Turkey, and Allied Maritime Command at Northwood, UK. [23]

    NATO and Romanian Ministry of Defense representatives activated the Headquarters Multinational Division Southeast (HQ MND-SE) headquarters in Bucharest, Romania, on December 1, 2015. [24] [25] The new HQ was activated as part of the Readiness Action Plan agreed at the 2014 Wales Summit. JFC Naples will serve as the operational control of MND-SE. The division HQ will be prepared to execute command and control over the NATO Force Integration Units in Romania and Bulgaria for a range of missions, which includes Article V operations based on NATO advance planning, when authorized by the North Atlantic Council and directed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe.

    The NATO Military Command Structure consists of two strategic commands and is directed by the International Military Staff: [26]

    The commands under SACEUR - Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum, Allied Joint Force Command Naples and Joint Force Command Norfolk are Operational Level Commands, while Headquarters Allied Air Command, Headquarters Allied Maritime Command and Headquarters Allied Land Command are Tactical Level Commands. [27] SACEUR also has operational command of the Joint Support and Enabling Command. [28]


    Kaiser Wilhelm II and World War I

    Wilhelm’s behavior during the crisis that led to war in August 1914 is still controversial. There is little doubt that he had been broken psychologically by the criticism that followed the Eulenburg-Harden and Daily Telegraph scandals he suffered an episode of depression in 1908. In addition, the kaiser was out of touch with the realities of international politics in 1914 he thought that his blood relationships to other European monarchs were sufficient to manage the crisis that followed the June 1914 assassination of the Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Although Wilhelm signed the order for German mobilization following pressure from his generals–Germany declared war against Russia and France during the first week of August 1914– he is reported to have said, “You will regret this, gentlemen.”

    With World War I under way, the kaiser, as commander in chief of the German armed forces, retained the power to make upper-level changes in military command. Nonetheless, he was largely a shadow monarch during the war, useful to his generals as a public-relations figure who toured the front lines and handed out medals. After 1916, Germany was, in effect, a military dictatorship dominated by two generals, Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) and Erich Ludendorff (1865-1937).


    Commanders of Chaos: The 5 Worst Generals in U.S. History

    These American commanders have lost the battle for history.

    It would be nice if all American generals were great. How might Vietnam or Iraq have turned out if a George Washington, a Ulysses Grant or a George Patton had been in command?

    Alas, call it the laws of probability or just cosmic karma, but every nation produces bad generals as well as good ones—and America is no exception.

    What is a bad general? Defining that is like defining a bad meal. Some would say that failure on the battlefield warrants censure. Others would say that it is not victory, but success in fulfilling a mission that counts.

    But for whatever reason, some American commanders have lost the battle for history. Here are five of America's worst generals:

    Horatio Gates:

    Great generals have great talents, and usually egos and ambitions to match. Yet backstabbing your commander-in-chief in the middle of a war is taking ambition a little too far. A former British officer, Gates rose to fame as Continental Army commander during the momentous American defeat of a British army at Saratoga in 1777.

    Many historians credit Benedict Arnold and others with being the real victors of Saratoga. Gates thought otherwise, and fancied himself a better commander than George Washington. It's not the first time that someone thought he was smarter than his boss. But Gates could have doomed the American Revolution.

    During the darkest days of the rebellion, when Washington's army had been kicked out of New York and King George's star seemed ascendant, the "Conway cabal" of disgruntled officers and politicians unsuccessfully schemed to out Washington and appoint Gates.

    How well that would have worked can be seen when Gates was sent to command American troops in the South. His poor tactical decisions resulted in his army being routed by a smaller force of Redcoats and Loyalists at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina in 1780.

    Washington also suffered his share of defeats. But his persistence and inspiration kept the Continental Army in the field through the worst of times, which is why his face is on the one-dollar bill. If Gates had been in command, we might be paying for our groceries with shillings and pence.

    George McClellan:

    The American Civil War was a factory for producing bad generals such as Braxton Bragg and Ambrose Burnside.

    But the worst of all was McClellan, the so-called "Young Napoleon" from whom Lincoln and the Union expected great things. McClellan was a superb organizer, a West Point-trained engineer who did much to build the Union army almost from scratch.

    But he was overly cautious by nature. Despite Lincoln's pleas for aggressive action, his Army of the Potomac moved hesitantly, its commander McClellan convinced himself that the Southern armies vastly outnumbered him when logic should have told him that it was the North that enjoyed an abundance of resources.

    Men and material the Union could provide its armies. But there was something that not even the factories of New York and Chicago could produce, and that was time. As Lincoln well knew, the only way the Union could lose the war was if the North eventually grew tired and agreed to allow the South to secede. Haste risked casualties and defeats at the hands of a formidable opponent like Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia. The alternative was to split the United States asunder.

    Ulysses S. Grant, who replaced McClellan, understood this. He gritted his teeth and wore down the Confederacy with incessant attacks until the South could take no more. McClellan was a proto-Douglas MacArthur who bad-mouthed his president and commander-in-chief. Grant left politics to the politicians and did what had to be done.

    Had Lincoln retained McClellan in command of the Union armies, many former Americans might still be whistling "Dixie."

    Lloyd Fredendall:

    Not that Fredendall didn't have real issues that would have tried any commander. Woefully inexperienced U.S. soldiers found themselves against Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps veterans. The Americans lacked sufficient troops, supplies and air cover (when was the last time an American general had to fight a battle while being pounded by enemy bombers?)

    Yet Fredendall's solution was to order an Army engineer company to build a giant bunker a hundred miles from the front lines. He also issued orders to his troops in a personal code that no one else understood, such as this gem of command clarity:

    Move your command, i. e., the walking boys, pop guns, Baker's outfit and the outfit which is the reverse of Baker's outfit and the big fellows to M, which is due north of where you are now, as soon as possible. Have your boss report to the French gentleman whose name begins with J at a place which begins with D which is five grid squares to the left of M.

    The Kasserine disaster had repercussions. It was a humiliating baptism of fire for the U.S. Army in Europe, and more important, caused British commanders to dismiss their Yank allies as amateur soldiers for the rest of the war.

    Douglas MacArthur:

    Listing MacArthur as one of America's worst generals will be controversial. But then MacArthur thrived on controversy like bread thrives on yeast.

    He was indeed a capable warrior, as shown by the South Pacific campaign and the Inchon landing in Korea. But he also displayed remarkably bad judgment, as when he was commander in the Philippines in 1941. Informed that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor and were certain to attack the Philippines next, MacArthur failed to disperse his aircraft—the only force that could disrupt the Japanese offensive in the absence of the American fleet—and to attack Japanese airfields before the enemy wiped out his air force.

    But his crowning achievement was bad generalship in Korea. Yes, the landing at Inchon unhinged the initial North Korean offensive. But the rash advance into North Korea was a blunder of strategic proportions. Advancing in dispersed columns across the northern half of the peninsula was an invitation to be destroyed piecemeal. Advancing to the North Korean border with China also was a red flag for Mao-Tse Tung, who feared that American troops on his border were a prelude to U.S. invasion.

    Perhaps Mao would have intervened anyway. But MacArthur's strategy certainly helped unleash 300,000 Chinese "volunteers" who inflicted significant casualties on United Nations forces. Instead of holding a natural defense line around Pyongyang, which would have given the United Nations control of most of the peninsula, the UN troops retreated all the way back into South Korea in a humiliating reverse for U.S. power after the crushing victory of World War II.

    Finally, there was MacArthur's insubordination. He called for bombing China, as if liberating Korea was worth risking 550 million Chinese and possibly war with Russia as well. Whatever its military wisdom or lack thereof, it was a decision that should not have been made by generals under the American political system. When he made public his disagreements with President Truman, Truman rightfully fired him.

    Tommy Franks:

    The early days of the 2003 Iraq War were bound to be a graveyard for military and political reputations, given the misperceptions and misjudgments behind America's ill-fated adventure in regime change and nation-building. But Franks, who commanded the invasion, made a bad situation worse.

    Critics say that Franks and senior officials, such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, concocted an invasion plan that used too few troops. It wouldn't take a large force to slice through the ramshackle Iraqi army and topple Saddam Hussein, but securing a country the size of Iraq required a larger force.

    And what then? There appeared to be little serious planning for what would happen the day after Saddam was gone. Like it or not, the U.S. military would become the governing authority. If it couldn't or wouldn't govern the country, who would? America, the Middle East and the rest of the world are still reaping the consequences of those omissions.

    Finally, when it comes to bad generals, let us remember Truman's immortal words about firing MacArthur:

    I fired him because he wouldn't respect the authority of the President. I didn't fire him because he was a dumb son of a bitch, although he was, but that's not against the law for generals. If it was, half to three-quarters of them would be in jail.

    Michael Peck is a contributing writer at Foreign Policy and a writer for War Is Boring. Follow him on Twitter:@Mipeck1.


    Military Commander, Sanliurfa - History

    RBTH
    18 May 2021, 16:55 GMT+10

    Napoleon Bonaparte's star might never have risen had Alexander Suvorov lived a little longer.

    "No army in the world can resist the brave Russian grenadier," Generalissimo Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, one of the most outstanding military leaders of the 18th century and the greatest military commander in Russian history, used to say. During his long life (1730-1800) he participated in seven big wars, won 60 battles and never lost a single one!

    Suvorov stood in sharp contrast to other military commanders of the time, who preferred to act slowly and defensively and only attack when they had a numerical advantage. "Win with ability, not with numbers," was his response to them. A volley from extremely hit-and-miss muskets or from pistols that were even less capable of hitting their target could inflict heavy damage only on slow-moving targets, the commander believed. Rather than exposing your army lines to enemy fire, sweep the enemy aside with a daring and swift bayonet charge, even if outnumbered. "The bullet is a fool, the bayonet a fine chap," he used to say.

    The Generalissimo professed the principle of the "three military arts": judgement of eye, speed and attack. The judgement of the eye meant the ability to detect the weakest point of the enemy's defenses and use it as the focal point of the main attack. Speed manifested itself in the swiftness with which decisions were taken and implemented, in tactical mobility on the battlefield and on marches: "Our tardiness will multiply the enemy's strength. Speed and surprise will perturb and defeat the enemy." And attack meant consistent and coordinated actions by well-trained units capable of working together to ensure victory. "In two lines is strength in three half as much again the first breaks [the enemy lines], the second smashes them and the third finishes them off."

    All three military arts were successfully applied by Suvorov in battles against the Turks, Polish insurgents and the French. On many occasions, although outnumbered by the enemy (as in the Battle of Kozludzha in 1774 or the Battle of Focșani in 1789), he achieved victory thanks to his determination and boldness.

    It was not Alexander Vasilyevich's custom to hide behind his soldiers ("Death flees from the bayonet and saber of the brave") and this almost cost him his life in the Battle of Kinburn in 1787. Grenadier Ivan Novikov rescued Suvorov from the Janissaries after the commander was wounded by a canister shot.

    Grenadier Novikov rescues Suvorov in the battle on the Kinburn spit.

    The Battle by the River Rymnik in 1789 was the military commander's real triumph. Suvorov could only put up 7,000 Russian and 18,000 allied Austrian troops against a 100,000-strong Turkish army. Banking on surprise and speed, early in the morning of September 22, Alexander Vasilyevich secretly crossed the river, crushed the enemy's forward detachments and struck at the flank of the main Turkish army. The enemy camp, taken by surprise, was attacked with cavalry, causing panic among the Turks, and then the infantry finished the job. As a result, the enemy lost about 20,000, while the allied losses were estimated to be just 500. For his courage and decisiveness, the Austrians nicknamed Suvorov 'General Forwards'.

    Alexander Suvorov and the Battle by the River Rymnik.

    On December 22, 1790, Alexander Suvorov achieved the almost impossible. His troops took the reputedly impregnable Turkish fortress of Izmail on the Black Sea coast. The commander decided that the key to success should lie in a thoroughly-prepared assault. Not far from Izmail, earthen and wooden fortifications imitating the ditch and walls of the fortress were built and where soldiers were constantly trained. The weak point of Aydoslu Mehmed Pasha's garrison was the fact that the number of irregulars in it exceeded the regular troops. Suvorov banked on the professionalism, experience and fortitude of his soldiers and he was proved right: The fortress fell. The enemy lost up to 26,000, while the Russian army's losses were just under 2,000. 'One could decide to storm such a fortress only once in a lifetime," Alexander Vasilyevich would later say.

    Russian army captured Izmail fortress.

    On November 4, 1794, during the suppression of the Polish Uprising led by Tadeusz Kościuszko, Suvorov's troops stormed the Praga suburb of Warsaw, as a result of which around 12,000 Polish soldiers and townspeople were killed. "At five in the morning, we went on the attack and, at nine o'clock, the Polish army that had been defending Praga and Praga itself along with its inhabitants were no more. In the course of four hours, a terrible revenge was exacted for the carnage our own men had sustained in Warsaw!" recalled General Ivan von Klügen, referring to the so-called Warsaw Matins of April 17, 1794. This was when, at the start of the uprising, the residents of the city had suddenly attacked and killed a large part of the Russian garrison during morning service in the run-up to Easter. For all that, just before the storming of Praga, Suvorov invited the townspeople immediately to flee to the Russian camp (which led to many people being saved), while giving his own troops the following order: "Do not enter houses enemies asking for mercy are to be spared do not kill the unarmed do not fight women do not touch children." Warsaw itself capitulated on November 9 without a fight.

    Alexander Suvorov enters Warsaw.

    Catherine II showered Suvorov with ranks and honors, but Paul I, who succeeded her to the throne in 1796, was not as favorably disposed to the commander. Used to the simple army life, Alexander Vasilyevich was sharply critical of the Prussian army ways introduced by the Emperor - the plaiting and powdering of hair and constant drill sessions, reviews and parades. "Hair powder isn't gunpowder, a ringlet isn't a gun, a plait is no cutlass and I'm not Prussian, but a natural-born Russian," he once said and was soon exiled to his estate.

    An exiled Suvorov receiving orders to lead the Russian Army against Napoleon

    With the formation of the Second Coalition against the French in early 1799, however, the allies asked the Russian ruler to send Suvorov to enemy-occupied Italy at the head of allied troops. Within a short space of time, the French sustained crushing defeats at the hands of 'General Forwards' in battles on the rivers Adda and Trebbia, so the whole region was occupied by the allied Austrian army.

    General Suvorov at the battle by river Adda on April 27, 1799.

    The Italian campaign was followed by the Swiss campaign, which, as it turned out, proved to be the elderly commander's last. In the course of several weeks, while coming under constant attack from superior enemy forces, Suvorov's troops fought their way across the Alps, smashing General Andre Massena in the Mutten (Muota) Valley along the way. Alexander Vasilyevich managed to preserve his weary army, breaking out of the encirclement in which it had found itself and leading it to the Austrian border. "In conquering the enemies of the Fatherland everywhere and through the whole of your life, there was one thing you had not achieved - victory over nature itself, but now you have gained the upper hand over nature, too," a delighted Paul I said in a message to Suvorov and ordered the highest military rank - that of Generalissimo - to be bestowed on him.

    Suvorov crossing the Alps in 1799.

    Suvorov's name resonated throughout Europe. He was admired by enemies and allies alike. The famous British naval commander Horatio Nelson, who would go on to destroy the French fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, wrote to the Generalissimo as follows: "I am being overwhelmed with honors, but I was today found worthy of the greatest of them all: I was told that I was like you."

    The two supreme commanders of the era - Napoleon Bonaparte and Alexander Suvorov - undoubtedly knew about each other. "He is a hero, he is a spectacular warrior, he is a magician!" is how the Generalissimo described the French commander in a letter to his nephew. "He vanquishes both nature and men. He has cut the Gordian knot of tactics. Unperturbed by numbers, he attacks his adversaries everywhere and smashes them totally. He knows the invincible power of pressing home an attack." Bonaparte, for his part, was much more reticent in his praise, asserting that Suvorov had the heart but not the mind of a good commander. There was no opportunity to discover which of the two was the more accomplished in the art of warfare - they never faced each other on the battlefield.


    Military Commander, Sanliurfa - History

    By TERRY BOYD | STARS AND STRIPES Published: March 6, 2003

    We &mdash my buddy Levent and I &mdash are sitting at the balcony bar at the Edessa Hotel, the second most expensive joint in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

    Sanliurfa is so far off the beaten path that I half expect to see Sir Richard Burton, T.E. Lawrence and all the other 19th- and 20th-century explorers who once roamed the Middle East clustered around the bar across from us.

    In the new century, Sanliurfa remains an exotic destination by just about any measure.

    Modern and ancient by turns, the town has a holy site and &mdash for my money &mdash the most authentic bazaar in Turkey. But in the grasp of some of Turkey&rsquos more conservative imams, it has maybe three restaurants where you can get a drink, one of those being the Edessa. After days of crisscrossing southeastern Turkey&rsquos immense plains, we are deeply, gratefully into our second raki &mdash Turkey&rsquos anis-flavored national drink &mdash when I overhear a Canadian tourist at an adjoining table making light of Sanliurfa&rsquos sacred shrine.

    &ldquoWe saw the carp pond today,&rdquo she tells a table full of her fellow travelers, most of whom are from Toronto.

    I don&rsquot know if it was the raki, the fatigue or if the woman really was as condescending as she sounded, but Levent &mdash a native of Toronto &mdash and I turn on her simultaneously. With not so much as a howdy-do, we launch into tirade/lectures: The Pool of Abraham &mdash a glorious oasis of clear pools, oriental architecture, mosques and gardens &mdash is holy to several Islamic sects, and could you please make an ass of yourself somewhere beside the town&rsquos second-best bar?

    Sanliurfa is like that &ndash a place so genuine that it instills notions of being a conservator, a guardian of tradition, if you would. On the other hand, there is no affluence without an influx of tourists, even though that badly needed cash will change Turkey&rsquos Wild, Wild East forever.

    At the town&rsquos bazaar, we run into Ara Guver, an Istanbul-based author and contract photographer for a number of international publications, including Time magazine. Jaunty in his photojournalist get-up, Guver looks a bit out of place amid Osama bin Laden lookalikes in flowing robes and beards.

    &ldquoHere is real!&rdquo he exclaims as he rests on a bench after a morning of shooting. &ldquoIstanbul has lost everything!&rdquo

    A bit of hyperbole, but I understand the sentiment. Istanbul is still my favorite city in the world, but it long ago lost its soul to modernity. This place has not.

    Around us, people buy and sell every conceivable item. Craftsmen bang copper and brass into utilitarian forms. An Arab woman in purple robes carefully takes a lighter so as not to touch the male vendor&rsquos hand. Spicy lamb on the grill mixes with incense. Old Arabs and Turks squat while appraising kilos of loose tobacco.

    And the tea. Vendors race up and down the indecipherable, catacomb-like hallways, trying to keep up with a never-ceasing demand for the reddish-black brew.

    As we try to take in our surroundings, Guver tells us to savor what we are seeing. &ldquoTake lots of pictures because in five years when you come back, it won&rsquot be the same.&rdquo

    Twenty years ago, he says, he came here and there were no signs of the 20th century. No traffic jams. No billboards or commercial clutter.

    &ldquoIt was pure,&rdquo he said. &ldquoTwenty years from now, it will be sucked into the Industrial Age.&rdquo

    The government in Ankara added &ldquoSanli&rdquo (&ldquoglorious&rdquo) to the town&rsquos former name of Urfa in 1973, a salute to the contribution its fighters made 50 years earlier after they turned the tide in Ataturk&rsquos 1923 revolution that made Turkey the Middle East&rsquos first secular republic.

    Glorious or not, the town plainly is not every traveler&rsquos cup of tea, and one guidebook describes it as &ldquoa town of no great beauty.&rdquo Guver scornfully quotes an Istanbul colleague, who he said places Sanliurfa smack dab in the middle of &ldquomud-hut Turkey.&rdquo

    Not true. I call it God&rsquos country in the most literal sense an Anglo-Jewish agnostic can get away with without being struck by lightning. Quite apart from Mecca, the sacred birthplace of Islam, Turks consider Urfa the historic heart of Islam via its supposed connection to early Jewish prophets who preceded Muhammad.

    Abraham and Lot lived here &mdash or near here, in Harran to the south, according to the Bible &mdash and Urfa was the target of two Crusades because this was once, believe it or not, part of the Holy Roman Empire.

    Though it&rsquos never mentioned by name in the Quran, some Muslims believe Adam was born here by the description of the Garden of Eden. Of the 28 prophets of both the Quran and Torah, at least 20 resided in Urfa, according to Cahit Uyanak, the former Imam at the Abdurrahman Mosque and Madrassa, or religious school, on the west corner of the Pool of Abraham.

    The ruins of a Macedonian fortress above, the series of pools is one of the most inviting sights in Turkey, surrounded by acres and acres devoted to open grassy areas and shady tea gardens. You can see mosques and minarets dating back 600 years to the Selcuks, along with late Ottoman architecture.

    The series of large pools &mdash where the water comes from in this arid land is anyone&rsquos guess &mdash dates to at least the 12th century, but there are multiple legends and religious explanations in Islam for the sight.

    Most claim that Abraham died here and ascended to heaven. Where the beliefs diverge is how he returned. Some say that he was reincarnated as a carp, and thus the swarming schools of overfed carp are treated reverently to this day. Time and again, boys crouching beside the pools assure me that they witnessed a cohort grab a particularly enormous one, only to be immediately struck blind.

    Beliefs and legends aside, the Pool of Abraham is one of the most serene, inviting places I&rsquove ever passed the hours. Just being there, drinking tea and watching the pilgrims feed the fish is as close to a religious experience as I may ever have. And I hope it never changes.

    Which makes me &mdash a secular Westerner &mdash an ally of Uyunak, the ultra-conservative hoja who used to be head imam at the Pool of Abraham. We meet Uyunak, a clean-shaven, dignified man straight out of Turkish middle management, when Levent and I decided to look up local Muslim dignitaries to find out more about the religious history.

    At first, Imam Uyunak doesn&rsquot want to talk to us, but Turkish hospitality dictates he offers tea. With gentle urgings from his young, gentlemanly replacement, the old imam warms to us, and we spend hours talking about the world, Islam&rsquos place in it, and his former fiefdom.

    Soon it comes out that he has a story to tell. Uyunak was the Imam of Abdurrahman Camii (mosque) and Madrassa until a few months earlier, when he included a none-too-subtle parable in his Friday sermon. With Sanliurfa&rsquos mayor and municipal officials in attendance, he analogized local corruption to a huge pool with a crack in it, and thousand of liters of water leaking out.

    Yet, official bookkeeping (shades of Enron, here) maintains the pool is full. &ldquoHow can that be?&rdquo Uyunak said.

    Local officials were not pleased that the old man was basically accusing them of siphoning off the pools&rsquo proceeds and promptly retired him, leaving him to survive on a pension of 10 million Turkish lira a month (about $7).

    But the real issue, Uyunak says, was he fought the city&rsquos plan to install a cultural center at the site with Turkish folk dancing in an open-air theatre. &ldquoI warned the municipality, &lsquoDon&rsquot change the authenticity of the site!&rsquo &rdquo Uyunak said. &ldquoThey were going to have dancing here. This is the home of Abraham, and they were going to have women dancing almost bare naked!&rdquo

    Levent fights to keep a straight face, then looks at me. I am not laughing.

    I&rsquom thinking about the uneasy relationship between secular Turks and the devout brethren they so fear. I flash back on a busload of Turkish teens dressed in short shorts and revealing shirts I had seen earlier, traipsing loudly around the Pool of Abraham, and I decide this is one the Imam should win.

    &ldquoI agree,&rdquo I say, almost involuntarily.

    &ldquoYou do?&rdquo the Imam says, looking at me for a long time.

    &ldquoYou know,&rdquo he says as we part, &ldquothe thing I find most surprising is that non-Muslims are so often more respectful than the locals.&rdquo

    And I think about all the tension between the Islamic world and the West since Sept. 11, and how religious traditions come together here &mdash no matter how fanciful the legends &mdash and I think the Imam&rsquos words are the most hopeful I&rsquove heard in months.

    Young men start as children working as apprentices at the thousands of iron and copper works at Sanliurfa&#39s bazaar.
    TERRY BOYD / S&S


    Turkish Military Opens Command Center For Future Operation In Northeastern Syria

    On March 30, Turkey’s Defense Minister, Hulusi Akar, and Chief of General Staff, Gen. Yasar Gulero, inaugurated a center in southeastern province of Sanliurfa that will manage any possible military operation east of the Euphrates River in northern Syria.

    The two commanders also inspected Turkish forces deployed near the Syrian border in Sanliurfa, according to the Anadolu Agency.

    The new command center reflects Turkey’s determination to end the current situation in northeastern Syria, where US-backed Kurdish forces have established a self-administration. Turkey consider these forces a threat to its national security and recognize some of them, like the People’s Protection Units (YPG), as terrorist groups.

    Earlier, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan vowed to solve the issue of northeastern Syria “on the field” after the upcoming local elections, which is set to be held on March 31. The Turkish President warned that his country will not tolerate a “terrorist corridor” on its southern border.

    “We have taught the necessary lesson to those who tried to do that and we will do the same to them in the future,” Erdogan said.


    Military Commander, Sanliurfa - History

    By LIZ SLY, MISSY RYAN | The Washington Post | Published: October 12, 2019

    BEIRUT — The Turkish invasion of northeastern Syria has forced the U.S. military and its Syrian Kurdish allies to sharply curtail military operations against the Islamic State at a critical moment in the ongoing fight to stamp out the group's residual presence, creating an opening for the militants' comeback, U.S. and Kurdish officials say.

    Hundreds of fighters with the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) have been relocated from areas where the anti-Islamic State operations were focused on the front lines with Turkey, drawing manpower and resources away from the daily raids and missions that have thwarted an Islamic State revival.

    Defense Secretary Mark Esper said on Friday that the United States had not abandoned its Kurdish allies and that the 1,000 troops deployed there would continue hunting down the remnants of the Islamic State. The militant group lost territorial control of its self-proclaimed caliphate earlier this year but is making strenuous efforts to resuscitate its organizational structures across Syria and Iraq.

    "We will continue to work with the 80 members of the Defeat-ISIS coalition and the Syrian Democratic Forces to ensure the defeat of ISIS," he said, using the acronym for the Islamic State.

    U.S. officials privately acknowledged, however, that the tempo of operations against the Islamic State in Syria has "significantly tapered off" since the Turkish offensive began, according to one official who spoke on the condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the news media.

    A senior SDF official said the anti-Islamic State fight had come to a complete halt, because U.S. troops cannot operate without their SDF partners on the ground, and the SDF is unable to participate in missions while also confronting Turkey. "We are focusing on the Turkish fight," said the official, speaking on the condition of anonymity in accordance with ground rules established by the SDF.

    The most immediate concern is that Islamic State fighters and their families will escape from any of the 20 or so prisons and camps dotted around SDF-held territory. Only about 1,500 of the 10,000 fighters, including foreigners, Iraqis and Syrians, are detained in prisons in the border area. The SDF continues to guard all the prisons and camps where Islamic State fighters or family members are being held, it said.

    In the first instance of a prisoner escape since the invasion began, five Islamic State detainees managed to flee Friday during the panic triggered by a mortar strike on a prison on the outskirts of the Syrian city of Qamishli, according to SDF officials and CCTV video. Tensions have also been rising at the al-Hol camp near the Iraqi border, which houses 70,000 women and children displaced by the fighting.

    There are also thousands of Islamic State fighters still on the run. They have managed to blend in among the Arab communities they once ruled or are camped out in desert hideouts, officials say.

    The most worrisome pockets are hundreds of miles to the south of the front lines with Turkey, in the province of Deir al-Zour and along the Euphrates River valley leading to their former capital of Raqqa, overwhelmingly Arab areas that were already chafing under the rule of the Kurdish-dominated SDF.

    Until this week, U.S. troops and their SDF partners had been conducting raids and missions daily to root out sleeper cells, financiers and recruiters, and they believed they were managing to stay a step ahead of the militants' efforts to regroup, according to U.S. officials. In the week immediately preceding the Turkish incursion, SDF forces alongside coalition partners captured three Islamic State figures linked to explosive attacks and militant sleeper cells, the U.S. military said.

    The progress could be reversed with the pause in the effort, risking a vacuum that the Islamic State could exploit to step up its attacks or perhaps seek to seize territory again, said the SDF commander, Gen. Mazloum Kobane. "We have to keep them under pressure so that they cannot regroup," he said.

    There had been no reason until this week to believe the Islamic State was in any position to take over territory, as it did in 2014, when its sweep through Iraq and Syria brought U.S. troops back to the region, he said. Although scattered attacks still take place, they are small in scale. A bomb outside a restaurant in the town of Qamishli that killed three people was claimed by the Islamic State on Friday. An attack in Raqqa overnight Monday was initially presented by the SDF as a major assault, but it turned out to involve a lone suicide bomber who killed himself and one SDF fighter at a security post.

    The group either lacks the capacity to launch the kind of sustained, repeat suicide bombings that preceded the rise of its "caliphate" in 2014, whether in Iraq or Syria, or is biding its time until it feels the moment is right, U.S. officials say.

    Rather, the group has been focused on reviving the financial and recruitment networks that helped swell its ranks and fueled the insurgency in the past, according to U.S. and Kurdish officials.

    Although the militants lost control of their territory, their organizational structures remain largely intact, said Hassan Hassan of the Center for Global Policy, who is from Deir al-Zour, Syria.

    "Vigilance is important. ISIS is coming back slowly, but the danger is real," he said. "Their organization still functions. You would imagine it shattered, but it seems to be robust. It's not back yet, but they are rebuilding and still have that kind of fear and ability to scare and terrify people in the areas."

    In recent weeks, the militants have shifted their focus from carrying out small-scale attacks on security forces to intimidating residents and abducting or assassinating those who collaborate with the SDF in Arab areas, said Mazloum. Doubts about the durability of U.S. support for the Kurds could further deter local residents from cooperating with U.S. and SDF efforts to stabilize communities by restoring local governance and services.

    The repercussions also could be felt in neighboring Iraq, which has been hit in the past 10 days by a wave of popular unrest that risks detracting attention from the Islamic State fight. There, the Islamic State has had more time to regroup from its defeats and has made greater progress in reactivating its networks, military officials say. Militants who are thought to have escaped from the final defeat at the battle of Baghouz have been arriving in Iraq to reinforce local cells, including foreigners, said an Iraqi Kurdish intelligence official, speaking on the condition of anonymity because he is not authorized to speak to the press.

    The Iraqi army has sent reinforcements to the Syrian border to guard against a spillover of chaos in Syria that could bring a surge of Islamic State fighters into Iraq, an Iraqi army spokesman said. But already it is clear that Islamic State operatives are reestablishing a degree of freedom of movement across an arc of territory stretching from eastern Syria to eastern Iraq, said the intelligence official.

    Pentagon officials said they had not noticed the wave of protests that has engulfed Baghdad and much of southern Iraq affecting operations against the Islamic State. But the Kurdish intelligence official said it has already become clear that the upheaval was distracting government attention from efforts to coordinate much needed operations against the expanding Islamic State presence.


    Watch the video: Νέος διοικητής στην 8η ΤΑΞΜΠ - ITV ΕΙΔΗΣΕΙΣ - 1532018 (May 2022).