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8 February 1942

8 February 1942

8 February 1942

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Germany

Albert Speer succeeds Dr Todt as Minister of Armaments and War Production



Battle of Singapore

Japanese troops celebrate during the Battle of Singapore

The fall of Singapore is, even today considered one of the biggest defeats of the British Army and it is the worst defeat that it suffered during World War II. The Japanese army “took” Singapore on February 15th 1942. The battle for Singapore also showed the battle style the Japanese intended to use in the Far East – fast and decisive attacks which in the end only stopped with the dropping of the atomic bomb in 1945.


Canada History: Feb. 19. 1942 When the Nazis invaded Winnipeg

People were enlisting eagerly into the Canadian military forces, industrial production was massively converted to war production of guns, artillery, ships, aircraft, armoured and cargo vehicles, radios, medical supplies, uniforms and canvas goods, and all sorts of other materiel. The biggest aircrew training plan in history was well underway with aerodromes being built across the country and crew arriving from across Canada, the Commonwealth countries, and escapees from occupied Europe.

Canadians were already in England readying for a potential German invasion. Canadian fighter pilots were in action in the skies over the island helping to fend off German raiders, and on the seas the navy and merchant marine were involved against U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic while delivering vital supply ships to the U.K.

But for Canadians at home, the war still seemed a bit distant.

The Canadian government had been engaged in raising money for the war effort through “Victory Bond” campaigns. The first one had been very successful, but hundreds of millions of dollars more were needed. The second bond campaign began on February16th across the country, but someone already had the idea to bring a bit of realism to the effort.

The first hint came of that effort on the 18th when warplanes painted with German crosses were spotted flying low over towns at the northern tip of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba. Then that night Selkirk, a town a little north of Winnipeg itself, was ordered into a blackout to the sound of explosions from “dropped bombs”.

The next morning residents of the Manitoba capital were shaken awake to the sights and sound of armed Canadian soldiers, vehicles and anti-aircraft guns in the streets firing (blanks) at advancing German forces and at German marked planes overhead flying mock bombing runs. Dynamite and coal dust simulated bombs and shells to add to the very realistic noise, certainly frightening to those unfamiliar with such things. Rubble was strewn across bridges to simulate them having been blown up.

The invading Nazi’s take day the Royal Union flag at City Hall and replace it with the Nazi Hakenkreuz ( Pathe newsreel- YouTube)

Soon there were German soldiers in the outskirts, and the radio began broadcasting German messages. Gunfire was heard in the streets in the city centre. Anti-aircraft guns fired into the sky and more explosions from bombs were heard.

The realistic raid which had begun before dawn, was successful in taking the capital by 0930. The Royal Union Flag at city hall was taken down, and the Nazi hakenkreuz flag was raised and a German victory parade was later held. A proclamation declared that the city had been renamed “Himmlerstadt”.

“If Day”

The whole effort was called “If Day”, that is, -if- we don’t support the war effort and the Germans succeed, this could happen. The idea was to present as realistic a scenario as possible, with arrests and incarceration of officials. While there had been announcements about the coming event, some people had still managed not to be aware it was a staged invasion, and were truly frightened, at least for a short while, which of course added to the realism.

The “German” soldiers (in uniforms supplied by Hollywood) arrest a Winnipeg Tribune news carrier for distributing ‘illegal” news and rip up his papers. The Tribune will be renamed and printed as “Lugenblatt” for the day ( Manitoba Historical Society)

The regional branch of the National War Finance Committee organized “If Day” as a way to bring the war home to people not really affected by it, and by raising awareness, increase the sale of Victory Bonds.
It became the largest military exercise in Manitoba, and one of the largest in Canada to date with some 3,500 soldiers defending the city against the “invaders” who were also soldiers and other volunteers from the Young Men’s Board of Trade using Nazi uniforms borrowed from Hollywood.

$3 Million Victory Bonds sold in one day.

The event was extremely elaborate with, the planes, the AA-guns, and rifle fire (all blanks), even with a fake edition of the Winnipeg Tribune printed, mostly in German, and with German money printed (with an advert for Victory Bonds on the back)

Realistic looking “marks” were printed with the “what if” information on the back (wiki commons)

Pre-selected old and damaged books were burned by the “Nazi” soldiers in an event in front of a library,

At the end of the day however, the “prisoners” were released and organizers and others marched down the main street with a banner reading “It MUST not happen here!”

The result was a rousing success with Victory Bond sales well over Winnipeg’s target at $3.2 million, the largest one day sale, and the city’s target of $24 million was reached only a few days later, while the provincial target of $45 million was easily surpassed at $60 million, all attributed to “If Day”

The event was also covered by many American news services including Life Magazine, Newsweek, New York Times, and others. Newspapers as far away as New Zealand also carried coverage of the event.

In 2006 a documentary was made of the event by Past Perfect productions, and clips were included in Guy Maddin’s film “My Winnipeg”.

It remains an amazing historical event, alas again almost entirely forgotten now.

Pathe Newsreel coverage 1942

Past Perfect Productions 2006 documentary (trailer)


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Anderson, LeRoy. The Denison Press (Denison, Tex.), Vol. 8, No. 182, Ed. 1 Wednesday, February 4, 1942 , newspaper , February 4, 1942 (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth527649/: accessed June 21, 2021 ), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, https://texashistory.unt.edu crediting Grayson County Frontier Village .

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Executive Order 9066: Resulting in the Relocation of Japanese (1942)

Citation: Executive Order 9066, February 19, 1942 General Records of the Unites States Government Record Group 11 National Archives.

Photograph, "Japanese near trains during Relocation" ARC #195538 FDR-PHOCO: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library Public Domain Photographs, 1882-1962 Franklin D. Roosevelt Library National Archives and Records Administration.
How to use citation info.
(on Archives.gov)

Issued by President Franklin Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, this order authorized the evacuation of all persons deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to relocation centers further inland.

Between 1861 and 1940, approximately 275,000 Japanese immigrated to Hawaii and the mainland United States, the majority arriving between 1898 and 1924, when quotas were adopted that ended Asian immigration. Many worked in Hawaiian sugarcane fields as contract laborers. After their contracts expired, a small number remained and opened up shops. Other Japanese immigrants settled on the West Coast of mainland United States, cultivating marginal farmlands and fruit orchards, fishing, and operating small businesses. Their efforts yielded impressive results. Japanese Americans controlled less than 4 percent of California’s farmland in 1940, but they produced more than 10 percent of the total value of the state’s farm resources.

As was the case with other immigrant groups, Japanese Americans settled in ethnic neighborhoods and established their own schools, houses of worship, and economic and cultural institutions. Ethnic concentration was further increased by real estate agents who would not sell properties to Japanese Americans outside of existing Japanese enclaves and by a 1913 act passed by the California Assembly restricting land ownership to those eligible to be citizens. In 1922 the U.S. Supreme Court, in Ozawa v. United States, upheld the government’s right to deny U.S. citizenship to Japanese immigrants.

Envy over economic success combined with distrust over cultural separateness and long-standing anti-Asian racism turned into disaster when the Empire of Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Lobbyists from western states, many representing competing economic interests or nativist groups, pressured Congress and the President to remove persons of Japanese descent from the west coast, both foreign born (issei – meaning “first generation” of Japanese in the U.S.) and American citizens (nisei – the second generation of Japanese in America, U.S. citizens by birthright.) During Congressional committee hearings, Department of Justice representatives raised constitutional and ethical objections to the proposal, so the U.S. Army carried out the task instead. The West Coast was divided into military zones, and on February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 authorizing exclusion. Congress then implemented the order on March 21, 1942, by passing Public Law 503.

After encouraging voluntary evacuation of the areas, the Western Defense Command began involuntary removal and detention of West Coast residents of Japanese ancestry. In the next 6 months, approximately 122,000 men, women, and children were moved to assembly centers. They were then evacuated to and confined in isolated, fenced, and guarded relocation centers, known as internment camps. The 10 relocation sites were in remote areas in 6 western states and Arkansas: Heart Mountain in Wyoming, Tule Lake and Manzanar in California, Topaz in Utah, Poston and Gila River in Arizona, Granada in Colorado, Minidoka in Idaho, and Jerome and Rowher in Arkansas.

Nearly 70,000 of the evacuees were American citizens. The government made no charges against them, nor could they appeal their incarceration. All lost personal liberties most lost homes and property as well. Although several Japanese Americans challenged the government’s actions in court cases, the Supreme Court upheld their legality. Nisei were nevertheless encouraged to serve in the armed forces, and some were also drafted. Altogether, more than 30,000 Japanese Americans served with distinction during World War II in segregated units.

For many years after the war, various individuals and groups sought compensation for the internees. The speed of the evacuation forced many homeowners and businessmen to sell out quickly total property loss is estimated at $1.3 billion, and net income loss at $2.7 billion (calculated in 1983 dollars based on the Commission investigation below). The Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act of 1948, with amendments in 1951 and 1965, provided token payments for some property losses. More serious efforts to make amends took place in the early 1980s, when the congressionally established Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians held investigations and made recommendations. As a result, several bills were introduced in Congress from 1984 until 1988, when Public Law 100-383, which acknowledged the injustice of the internment, apologized for it, and provided for restitution, was passed.

For more information and other documents regarding the War Relocation Authority and the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II, visit the National Archives’ Truman Presidential Museum and Library.

(Information excerpted from Documents from the National Archives: Internment of Japanese Americans [Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1989] pp. 9󈝶.)

For more information and education lesson plans visit the National Park Service site "The War Relocation Camps of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger Than Justice."


8 February 1942 - History

  • Interview with Lucia Bach.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Lady Percy McNeice nee Loke Yuen Peng.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Stanley Warren.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Dr Lim Hock Siew.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Dr Lim Hock Siew.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Jack Ng Kim Boon.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Jack Ng Kim Boon.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.
  • Interview with Arthur Alexander Thompson.
    Source: Oral History Centre, courtesy of National Archives of Singapore.

On 15 February 1942, which was the first day of the Lunar New Year, Lieutenant General Arthur E. Percival, who was then the General Officer Commanding (Malaya), signed the surrender documents before Lieutenant General Tomoyuki Yamashita, Commander of the Japanese 25th Army that invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941. The meeting took place at the Ford Motor Factory, which had been made Yamashita’s headquarters, located in Upper Bukit Timah Road. [1]

Upon convening at the Ford Motor Factory on the evening of 15 February with three other military officers, Percival tried to negotiate with Yamashita on some of the conditions for the surrender of Singapore. [2] Percival wished to delay the ceasefire so as to ensure that all of his men received their orders on time. He also wished to keep 1,000 men armed as he was afraid that the Japanese would retaliate against the local population. [3]

Yamashita, who later described his attack on Singapore as “a bluff that worked”, [4] feared the British were trying to buy time for more reinforcements to arrive. [5] He was particularly worried that the British might discover the truth about the actual situation of his troops, in particular their numerical inferiority compared to the British and their shortage of supplies and ammunition. [6] Hence, Yamashita threatened to carry on with the attack planned for that night if Percival did not acquiesce to his demands. Faced with no other choice, Percival signed the surrender documents, thereby sealing the fate of Singapore and subjecting the island to three-and-a-half years of Japanese occupation. [7]

References
1. National Library Board. (2001). The British surrender team of 1942 written by Cornelius-Takahama, Vernon. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from Singapore Infopedia National Library Board. (2013, July 19). Battle of Singapore written by Ho, Stephanie. Retrieved December 19, 2013, from Singapore Infopedia.
2. Tsuji, M. (1988). Singapore 1941–1942: The Japanese version of the Malayan campaign of World War II (pp. 266–267). (M. E. Lake, Trans.). Singapore: Oxford University Press. Call no.: RSING 940. 5425 TSU.
3. Kinvig, C. (1996). Scapegoat: General Percival of Singapore (pp. 218–219). London: Brassey's UK. Call no.: RSING 940.5425 KIN.
4. Potter, J. D. (1963). A soldier must hang: The biography of an oriental general (p. 81). London: Muller. Call no.: RCLOS 940.541352 POT.
5. Potter, 1963, p. 91.
6. Potter, 1963, p. 92.
7. Kinvig, 1996, p. 219 Allen, L. (1993). Singapore, 1941–1942 (pp. 180–183). London: Frank Cass. Call no.: RSING 940.5425 ALL.

The information in this article is valid as at 2014 and correct as far as we are able to ascertain from our sources. It is not intended to be an exhaustive or complete history of the subject. Please contact the Library for further reading materials on the topic.


February 8th, 1942 is a Sunday. It is the 39th day of the year, and in the 6th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 28 days in this month. 1942 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 2/8/1942, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 8/2/1942.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Photo, Print, Drawing Briggs Manufacturing Company, Detroit, Mich. Feb., 1942. Manufacturing airplane parts in a plant, which formerly turned out automobile bodies

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What You Need To Know About Rationing In The Second World War

In January 1940, the British government introduced food rationing. The scheme was designed to ensure fair shares for all at a time of national shortage.

The Ministry of Food was responsible for overseeing rationing. Every man, woman and child was given a ration book with coupons. These were required before rationed goods could be purchased.

Basic foodstuffs such as sugar, meat, fats, bacon and cheese were directly rationed by an allowance of coupons. Housewives had to register with particular retailers.

(© IWM D 25035) Queuing outside a greengrocers in Wood Green, North London in 1945. Unlike today, when most shopping is done in supermarkets, shopping during the war involved visiting individual shops - the butcher, greengrocer or baker - separately.

A number of other items, such as tinned goods, dried fruit, cereals and biscuits, were rationed using a points system. The number of points allocated changed according to availability and consumer demand. Priority allowances of milk and eggs were given to those most in need, including children and expectant mothers.

As shortages increased, long queues became commonplace. It was common for someone to reach the front of a long queue, only to find out that the item they had been waiting for had just run out.

Not all foods were rationed. Fruit and vegetables were never rationed but were often in short supply, especially tomatoes, onions and fruit shipped from overseas. The government encouraged people to grow vegetables in their own gardens and allotments. Many public parks were also used for this purpose. The scheme became better known as ‘Dig For Victory’.

Certain key commodities were also rationed – petrol in 1939, clothes in June 1941 and soap in February 1942. The end of the war saw additional cuts. Bread, which was never rationed during wartime, was put on the ration in July 1946.

It was not until the early 1950s that most commodities came ‘off the ration’. Meat was the last item to be de-rationed and food rationing ended completely in 1954.

One way to get rationed items without coupons, usually at greatly inflated prices, was on the black market. Shopkeepers sometimes kept special supplies ‘behind the counter’, and ‘spivs’ - petty criminals - traded in goods often obtained by dubious means. By March 1941, 2,300 people had been prosecuted and severely penalised for fraud and dishonesty.


8 February 1942 - History

The only registration currently available to the public is from the Fourth Registration conducted on April 27, 1942. This registration was for men born on or between 28 April 1877 and 16 February 1897. It is presently available for the following states: Arkansas (partial), California (partial), Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana (partial), Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York (partial), Ohio (partial), Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia. Note Wisconsin is not listed.

So what's available to Wisconsinites??

This page consists of 1) instructions of how to obtain WWII Draft Registration cards for DECEASED individuals from any of the seven draft registrations and 2) the actual data posted here is for individuals who were born in the Shawano County area but registered in the above mentioned states. As soon as the information is released and we have access to it, this page will include WWII Draft Registration for people who registered from Shawano County. So, why bother posting this index? Well, if your family member MOVED out of Shawano County to . and registered for the Draft in April 1942 from one of the above mentioned areas, they are here! So far, only about 300 lucky individuals are included in this database section -- but, if your "missing family" is mentioned and you now have a clue where they moved to after the Great Depression, this was well worth the look.

Now, for #1 -- HOW DO I GET COPIES OF MY FAMILY MEMBER'S WWII DRAFT REGISTRATION? I've done this twice already, once for my Dad and again for my Uncle Ralph. The registration card looks very much like the WWI Draft cards. These are stored at the National Archives. NARA has numerous locations throughout the country and the one that maintains WISCONSIN RECORDS is:

NARA - Great Lakes Region
7358 South Pulaski Road
Chicago, IL 60629-5898

If you are seeking draft registrations for men born between the years 1878 and 1898 who registered for the Fourth Registration in April 1942, send the information for each individual in an email along with your mailing address or send it to the above snail mail address via the Post Office. Please include their name, date of birth, and place of residence in 1942. You do not need to send proof of death as these were 45+ years old when they registered in 1942.

Since neither my father or uncle appear in the only registration currently available to the public -- the Fourth Registration conducted on April 27, 1942, I contacted NARA in Chicago and filled out the attached form (if you are seeking draft registrations for men who registered for WW II and later). There is no fee for the search -- NARA will notify you by mail with regard to the search results -- REMEMBER to include PROOF that the person is deceased. I used a copy of a death certificate for Dad but for my uncle, I just printed out his entry from the Social Security Death Index online and that sufficed. When I originally contacted Chicago about my father in 2007, they explained they had the data but hadn't actually formed a plan to make this data available yet. Since they hadn't done it before, they took my information and sent me a free copy. Uncle Ralph's required a payment of $5.00 - and that was last month so I'm guessing they rethought the FREE idea. Just fill out the form, mail it in (Do not send any payment yet!) and then they will send you a letter via the Post Office, letting you know if they located a document and if so, then you can send the fee in (Do not send cash) with a copy of their reply letter. And about 10 days later, you have a copy like the one adjacent. Any of the war draft cards are of interest as they contain birthplace, address, height, weight, etc. -- what I was looking for in Uncle Ralph's was a mention of a first marriage. young 18 year old Ralph was not married so I can narrow down the search a little there to 1942 - 1959. The adjacent card shows Uncle participating in the 6th draft -- December 10-31, 1942 for men who reached the age of 18 since the previous registration. BTW, should you be in the Chicago area, you can visit NARA and use their facilities in person. (Great "Chicago-style" hot dog stand down the block!)

NARA has other military (service) records available -- visit their site and see what's there - from passenger lists to military records, etc. GREAT RESOURCE and friendly people who answer your questions.


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