Georgiana III SP-83 - History

Georgiana III SP-83 - History

Georgiana III

A former name retained.

(SP 83: t. 82; 1 95'; b. 15'; dr. 6', s. 15 k., cpl. 18, a.
3.pdrs., 1 .30 cal. mg.)

Georgiana III, an iron-hulled yacht, was built in 1916 by Harlan & Hollingsworth Corp., Wilmington, Del.; acquired by the Navy 3 May 1917 from her owner, Edward T. Stotesbury, Philadelphia: taken over 11 May 1917, and commissioned at Philadelphia the same day, Lt. J. H. R. Cromwell. USNRF, in command.

Assigned to the 4th Naval District, Georgiana III steamed to Wilmington 26 May for conversion to a section patrol boat by Harlan & Hollingsworth. On 2$ July she reported for harbor entrance patrol duty at Cape May N.J., and during World War I she patrolled the entrance to Delaware Bay, cruising between Cold Spring Harbor, N.J., and Lewes, Del. Fitted with underwater listening gear in July 1918, she also escorted ships through the Defensive Sea Area of Delaware Bay. After the Armistice, Georgiana III decommissioned at Essington, Pa., 30 November and was returned to her owner.

Georgiana III SP-83 - History

This page covers World War I era acquired vessels numbered in the "SP" and "ID" series from SP-1 through SP-99, plus some that were given numbers but not acquired.

See the list below to locate photographs of individual ships and craft numbered in the "SP" and "ID" series from SP-1 through SP-99.

If the "SP"/"ID" vessel you want does not have an active link on this page, or the other pages of this series, and the statement "no image available" is lacking, contact the Photographic Section concerning other research options.

World War I era acquired vessels numbered from SP-1 through SP-99:

  • SP-1 : Arawan II . 71-foot motor boat, 1912. USN: Arawan II , 1917-1918
  • SP-2 : Lynx . 45-foot motor boat, 1916. USN: Lynx , 1917-1919
  • SP-3 : Zipalong . Motor boat, 1907. USN: Zipalong , 1917-1918. No image available
  • SP-4 : Porpoise . Motor boat. USN: Porpoise , 1917-1919. No image available
  • SP-5 : Tacony . 82-foot motor boat, 1911. Also named Sybilla II . USN: Tacony , 1917-1918.
  • SP-8 : Patrol # 4 . 40-foot motor boat, 1915. USN: Patrol # 4 , 1917-1919
  • SP-9 : Psyche V . 75-foot motor boat, 1911. Also named Achelous . USN: Psyche V , 1917-1919

Lady Jane Grey

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Lady Jane Grey, also called (from 1553) Lady Jane Dudley, (born October 1537, Bradgate, Leicestershire, England—died February 12, 1554, London), titular queen of England for nine days in 1553. Beautiful and intelligent, she reluctantly allowed herself at age 15 to be put on the throne by unscrupulous politicians her subsequent execution by Mary Tudor aroused universal sympathy.

What was Lady Jane Grey’s childhood like?

Lady Jane Grey received an excellent education and could speak and write Greek and Latin at an early age. Grandniece of Henry VIII, at age nine she briefly lived in the household of Catherine Parr, Henry’s sixth wife. After Jane’s father was created duke of Suffolk in 1551, she was frequently at the royal court.

How did Lady Jane Grey become queen of England?

Lady Jane Grey was a cousin of Edward VI, king of England from 1547 to 1553. Before Edward died, John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, persuaded him to make Jane his heir, even though Edward had two half sisters. Jane’s Protestantism made her the preferred candidate of those such as Northumberland who supported the Reformation.

How long was Lady Jane Grey queen of England?

Lady Jane Grey reigned as queen for nine days in 1553. The English people, however, largely supported Edward VI’s half sister Mary Tudor, the rightful heir by Henry VIII’s will. Jane was persuaded to relinquish the crown she never wanted. At the beginning of Mary’s reign, Jane was arraigned for high treason and later executed.

Lady Jane was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, whose own mother was Mary, the younger of King Henry VIII’s two sisters. Provided with excellent tutors, she spoke and wrote Greek and Latin at an early age she was also proficient in French, Hebrew, and Italian. When Lady Jane was barely nine years old, she went to live in the household of Queen Catherine Parr, and on the latter’s death in September 1548 she was made a ward of Catherine’s fourth husband, Thomas Seymour, Lord Seymour of Sudeley, who planned her marriage to his nephew and her cousin, the young king Edward VI. But Seymour was beheaded for treason in 1549, and Jane returned to her studies at Bradgate.

After Lady Jane’s father, hitherto marquess of Dorset, was created duke of Suffolk in October 1551, she was constantly at the royal court. On May 21, 1553, John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, who exercised considerable power at that point in the minority of King Edward VI, joined with Suffolk in marrying her to his son, Lord Guildford Dudley. Her Protestantism, which was extreme, made her the natural candidate for the throne of those who supported the Reformation, such as Northumberland. With the support of Northumberland, who had persuaded the dying Edward to set aside his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth in favour of any male heirs who might be born to the duchess of Suffolk and, failing them, to Lady Jane, she and her male heirs were designated successors to the throne.

Edward died on July 6, 1553. On July 10, Lady Jane—who fainted when the idea was first broached to her—was proclaimed queen. However, Edward’s sister Mary Tudor, the heir according to an act of Parliament (1544) and Henry VIII’s will (1547), had the support of the populace, and on July 19 even Suffolk, who by now despaired of success in the plans for his daughter, attempted to retrieve his position by proclaiming Mary queen. Northumberland’s supporters melted away, and the duke of Suffolk easily persuaded his daughter to relinquish the unwanted crown. At the beginning of Mary I’s reign, Lady Jane and her father were committed to the Tower of London, but he was soon pardoned. Lady Jane and her husband, however, were arraigned for high treason on November 14, 1553. She pleaded guilty and was sentenced to death. The execution of the sentence was suspended, but the participation of her father, in early February 1554, in Sir Thomas Wyatt’s rebellion sealed her fate. She and her husband were beheaded on February 12, 1554 her father was executed 11 days later.

Micmac Tribe

Micmac Indians, Mi’kmaq First Nation. (Migmak, ‘allies’ Nigmak, ‘our allies.’ Hewitt). Alternative names for the Micmac, which can be found in historical sources, include Gaspesians, Souriquois, Acadians and Tarrantines in the mid-19th century Silas Rand recorded the word wejebowkwejik as a self-ascription. 1 An important Algonquian tribe that occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Islands, the north part of New Brunswick, and probably points in south and west Newfoundland. While their neighbors the Abnaki have close linguistic relations with the Algonquian tribes of the great lakes, the Micmac seem to have almost as distant a relation to the group as the Algonquians of the plains 2

Micmac Tribe History

If Schoolcraft’s supposition be correct, the Micmac must have been among the first Indians of the north east coast encountered by Europeans, as he thinks they were visited by Sebastian Cabot in 1497, and that the 3 natives he took to England were of this tribe. Kohl believes that those captured by Cortereal in 1501 and taken to Europe were Micmac. Most of the early voyagers to this region speak of the great numbers of Indians on the north coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and of their fierce and warlike character. They early became friends of the French, a friendship which was lasting and which the English, after the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, by which Acadia was ceded to them, found impossible to have transferred to themselves for nearly half a century. Their hostility to the English prevented for a long time any serious attempts at establishing British settlements on the north coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, for although a treaty of peace was concluded with them in 1760, it was not until 1779 that disputes and difficulties with the Micmac tribe ceased. In the early wars on the New England frontier the Cape Sable Micmac were especially noted.

The missionary Biard, who, in his Relation of 1616, gives a somewhat full account of the habits and characteristics of the Micmac and adjacent tribes, speaks in perhaps rather too favorable terms of them. He says: “You could not distinguish the young men from the girls, except in their way of wearing their belts. For the women are girdled both above and below the stomach and are less nude than the men. Their clothes are trimmed with leather lace, which the women curry on the side that is not hairy. They often curry both sides of elk skin, like our buff skin, then variegate it very prettily with paint put on in a lace pattern, and make gowns of it from the same leather they make their shoes and strings. The men do not wear trousers they wear only a cloth to cover their nakedness.” Their dwellings were usually the ordinary conical wigwams covered with bark, skins, or matting. Biard says that “in summer the shape of their houses is changed for they are broad and long that they may have more air.” There is all evident attempt to show these summer bowers in the map of Jacomo di Gastaldi made about 1550 given in vol. III of some of the editions of Ramusio. Their government was similar to that of the New England Indians polygamy was not common, though practiced to some extent by the chiefs they were expert, canoemen and drew much of their subsistence from the waters. Cultivation of the soil was very limited if practiced at all by them, when first encountered by the whites. Biard says they did not till the soil in his day.

Micmac Divisons

According to Rand 3 they divided their country, which they called Megumage, into 7 districts, the head-chief living in the Cape Breton district. The other six were Pictou, Memramcook, Restigouche, Eskegawaage, Shubenacadie, and Annapolis. The first three of these formed a group known as Sigunikt the other three formed another group known as Kespoogwit. In 1760 the Micmac bands or villages were given as Le Have, Miramichi Tabogimkik, Pohomoosh, Gediak (Shediac), Pictou, Kashpugowitk (Kespoogwit), Chignecto, Isle of St Johns, Nalkitgoniash, Cape Breton, Minas, Chigabennakadik (Shubenacadie), Keshpugowitk (Kespoogwit, duplicated), and Rishebouctou (Richibucto). The Gaspesians are a band of Micmac differing somewhat in dialect front the rest of the tribe.

Micmac Culture and Life

The Micmacs have a system of communicating while in the woods. Sticks are placed in the ground a cut on one of them indicates that a message in picture-writing on a piece of birch bark is hidden near by under a stone. The direction in which the stick leans from its base upward indicates that in which the party moved, and thus serves as a convenient hint to those who follow to keep off their hunting grounds.

A game much in use within the wigwams of the Micmacs in former times is that called by some writers altestakun or wŏltĕs takûn. By good native authority it is said that the proper name for it is wŏltĕstōmkwŏn. It is a kind of dice game of unknown antiquity, undoubtedly of pre-Columbian origin. It is played upon a circular wooden dish, properly rock maple, almost exactly a foot in diameter, hollowed to a depth of about three-fourths of an inch at its center. This dish plays an important role in the older legends of the Micmacs.

Another Micmac game is tooādijik or football. The goals were of two sticks placed slantingly across each other like the poles of the traditional wigwam. About a score of players, divided into two parties, faced each other at equal distances from the center of the field. The ball was then rolled in by the umpire, and the object of the game was to kick it between the goal posts. In more recent times a player may catch his opponent by the neck and thus hold him back until he can obtain the ball himself, but scalping was anciently employed as a means of disposing of an opponent.

The choogichoo yajik, or serpent dance, was practiced in early times, but after the introduction of missionaries appeared to be supressed.

Micmac Locations

The Micmac historical villages were as follows:

  • Antigonishe (?)
  • Beaubassin (mission)
  • Boat Harbor
  • Chignecto
  • Eskusone
  • Indian Village
  • Isle of St Johns
  • Kespoogwit
  • Kigicapigiak
  • Le Have
  • Maria
  • Minas
  • Miramichi
  • Nalkitgoniash
  • Nipigiguit
  • Pictou
  • Pohomoosh
  • Restigouche
  • Richibucto
  • Rocky Point
  • Shediac
  • Shubenacadie
  • Tabogimkik

Micmac Settlement at Bay d’Espoir

Bay d’Espoir is a long inlet of the sea, extending up country over a score of miles. The district is hilly, and is covered by a forest of rather small trees, spruce and birch, but further inland the hills are generally bare. There are comparatively few European residents in this bay. The Micmac settlement is on a reservation situated on the eastern side of the Conne arm of the bay. The Reservation, it appears, was laid off for the Micmacs about 1872, by Mr. Murray, Geological Surveyor of the Colony.

Consult Further:

    The Micmac Indians At Bay d'Espoir is a report made in 1908 by William MacGregor on the state of habitation by the Micmac Indians on their reservation at Bay d'Espoir.

Micmac Language

The northernmost and most divergent of the Eastern Algonquian languages is Micmac or Mi’kmag, spoken by 8,100 4 in the Canadian maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, eastern New Brunswick), the Gaspe of Quebec, Labrador, and now Boston. Some children are still learning the language. There is dialect diversity among communities and age groups, with the greatest differences setting off the Restigouche community in Quebec.

The language of the Micmac Indians is very remarkable. One would think it might be exceedingly barren, limited in inflection, and crude. But just the reverse is the fact. It is copious, flexible, and expressive. Its declension of Nouns, and conjugation of Verbs, are as regular as the Greek, and twenty times as copious. The full conjugation of one Micmac Verb, would fill quite a large volume! In its construction and idiom it differs widely from the English. This is why an Indian usually spoke such wretched English. He thinks in his own tongue, and speaks in ours and follows the natural order of his own arrangement.

There are fewer elementary sounds in Micmac than in English. The have no r, and no f or v. Instead of r they say l, in such foreign words as they adopt. The name of an hour is in Micmac the same as that of an owl, (kookoogues) because when they first attempted to say hour, they had to say oul, and then they could think of the name of that nocturnal bird in their own tongue, more readily than they could recall a foreign term. 5

The Micmac Language was placed down on paper by Silas T. Rand in the 1870’s in an attempt to aid the Micmac people in learning how to read, and understand English. However, inversely it could be used by white people to learn the Micmac language.

Micmac Population Estimations

In 1611 Biard estimated the Micmac at 3,000 to 3,500. In 1760 they were reported at nearly 3,000, but had been lately much wasted by sickness. In 1766 they were again estimated at 3,500 in 1880 they were officially reported at 3,892, and in 1884 at 4,037. Of these, 2,197 were in Nova Scotia, 933 in New Brunswick, 615 in Quebec, and 292 on Prince Edward Island. In 1904, according to the Report of Canadian Indian Affairs, they numbered 3,861, of whom 579 were in Quebec province, 992 in New Brunswick, 1,998 in Nova Scotia, and 292 on Prince Edward island. The number in Newfoundland is not known.

Is there any truth to the myths surrounding Catherine?

To the general public, Catherine is perhaps best known for conducting a string of salacious love affairs. But while the empress did have her fair share of lovers󈟜 to be exact—she was not the sexual deviant of popular lore. Writing in The Romanovs, Montefiore characterizes Catherine as “an obsessional serial monogamist who adored sharing card games in her cozy apartments and discussing her literary and artistic interests with her beloved.” Many sordid tales of her sexuality can, in fact, be attributed to detractors who hoped to weaken her hold on power.

Army officer Grigory Potemkin was arguably the greatest love of Catherine’s life, though her relationship with Grigory Orlov, who helped the empress overthrow Peter III, technically lasted longer. The pair met on the day of Catherine’s 1762 coup but only became lovers in 1774. United by a shared appreciation of learning and larger-than-life theatrics, they “were human furnaces who demanded an endless supply of praise, love and attention in private, and glory and power in public,” according to Montefiore.

Letters exchanged by the couple testify to the ardent nature of their relationship: In one missive, Catherine declared, “I LOVE YOU SO MUCH, you are so handsome, clever, jovial and funny when I am with you I attach no importance to the world. I have never been so happy.” Such all-consuming passion proved unsustainable—but while the pair’s romantic partnership faded after just two years, they remained on such good terms that Potemkin continued to wield enormous political influence, acting as “tsar in all but name,” one observer noted. Upon Potemkin’s death in 1791, Catherine reportedly spent days overwhelmed by “tears and despair.”

Grigory Orlov (left) and Grigory Potemkin (right) were two of Catherine's most prominent lovers. (Public domain via Wikimedia Commons)

In her later years, Catherine became involved with a number of significantly younger lovers—a fact her critics were quick to latch onto despite the countless male monarchs who did the same without attracting their subjects’ ire. Always in search of romantic intimacy, she once admitted, “The trouble is that my heart is loath to remain even one hour without love.”

For all her show of sensuality, Catherine was actually rather “prudish,” says Jaques. She disapproved of off-color jokes and nudity in art falling outside of mythological or allegorical themes. Other aspects of the empress’ personality were similarly at odds: Extravagant in most worldly endeavors, she had little interest in food and often hosted banquets that left guests wanting for more. And though Catherine is characterized by modern viewers as “very flighty and superficial,” Hartley notes that she was a “genuine bluestocking,” waking up at 5 or 6 a.m. each morning, brewing her own pot of coffee to avoid troubling her servants, and sitting down to begin the day’s work.

Perhaps the most readily recognizable anecdote related to Catherine centers on a horse. But the actual story of the monarch’s death is far simpler: On November 16, 1796, the 67-year-old empress suffered a stroke and fell into a coma. She died the next day, leaving her estranged son, Paul I, as Russia’s next ruler.

Portrait of Catherine, circa 1780s (Photo by Fine Art Images / Heritage Images / Getty Images) Vigilius Ericksen, Empress Catherine II before the Mirror, 1779 (Photo by Fine Art Images / Heritage Images / Getty Images)

McNamara tells the Sydney Morning Herald that this apocryphal anecdote helped inspire “The Great.”

“It seemed like her life had been reduced to a salacious headline about having sex with a horse,” the writer says. “Yet she’d done an enormous amount of amazing things, had been a kid who’d come to a country that wasn’t her own and taken it over.”

Publicly, Catherine evinced an air of charm, wit and self-deprecation. In private, says Jaques, she balanced a constant craving for affection with a ruthless determination to paint Russia as a truly European country.

Jaques cites a Vigilius Ericksen portrait of the empress as emblematic of Catherine’s many contradictions. In the painting, she presents her public persona, standing in front of a mirror while draped in an ornate gown and serene smile. Look at the mirror, however, and an entirely different ruler appears: “Her reflection is this private, determined, ambitious Catherine,” says Jaques. “ … In one portrait, he’s managed to just somehow portray both sides of this compelling leader.”

Revivalism was an aesthetic movement in the Grand Period that saw renewed interest in classical and Renaissance designs. Jewelry from this movement featured many Greek and Roman motifs, such as peacocks, doves, and geometric patterns. Jewelers also began to revive the mosaic technique for making jewelry with images on it.

The Late Victorian, or Aesthetic Period, occurred after Queen Victoria emerged from mourning and featured a return to more whimsical art. Motifs such as stars, hearts, and dragons became common, as well as pieces modeled on Egyptian hieroglyphics. Designs became smaller and simpler

During this time, more gold mines were discovered on the American west coast and in Alaska, and several more diamond mines were opened by British companies in South Africa. The influx of new gold and diamonds lowered the cost of fine jewelry even further.

Diamond jewelry became especially popular in 1897, when it was made to celebrate the queen’s 60th anniversary as monarch. There were also inexpensive pieces of jewelry made to commemorate the Jubilee for the lower classes, which were cast in silver and stamped with the letter “V” for Victoria.

Ella Baker

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Ella Baker, in full Ella Josephine Baker, (born December 13, 1903, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.—died December 13, 1986, New York, New York), American community organizer and political activist who brought her skills and principles to bear in the major civil rights organizations of the mid-20th century.

Baker was reared in Littleton, North Carolina. In 1918 she began attending the high school academy of Shaw University in Raleigh, North Carolina. Baker continued her college education at Shaw, graduating as valedictorian in 1927. She then moved to New York City in search of employment. There she found people suffering from poverty and hardship caused by the Great Depression and was introduced to the radical political activism that became her life’s work. In the early 1930s, in one of her first efforts at implementing social improvement, she helped organize the Young Negroes Cooperative League, which was created to form cooperative groups that would pool community resources and thus provide less-expensive goods and services to members.

Baker married T.J. Roberts in the late 1930s and then joined the staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), first as a field secretary and later as national director of the NAACP’s various branches. Unhappy with the bureaucratic nature of the NAACP and newly responsible for the care of her young niece, she resigned from her director position in 1946 but worked with the New York branch to integrate local schools and improve the quality of education for black children.

Inspired by the historic bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955, Baker cofounded the organization In Friendship to raise money for the civil rights movement in the South. In 1957 she met with a group of Southern black ministers and helped form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to coordinate reform efforts throughout the South. Martin Luther King, Jr., served as the SCLC’s first president and Baker as its director. She left the SCLC in 1960 to help student leaders of college activist groups organize the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). With her guidance and encouragement, SNCC became one of the foremost advocates for human rights in the country. Her influence was reflected in the nickname she acquired: “Fundi,” a Swahili word meaning a person who teaches a craft to the next generation.

Baker continued to be a respected and influential leader in the fight for human and civil rights until her death on her 83rd birthday.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy Tikkanen, Corrections Manager.

The Broward Family

The Broward Family:

Francis Broward (Brouard) was born on 2-5-1755 in Perche Providence, Normandy, France.  He sailed from Brest, France with 371 other Huguenots which landed at the Georgetown district in South Carolina in 1764. 

He served with Count Polaski in the Battle of Savannah during the American Revolutionary War. He was married to Rebecca Sarah Bell on May 16, 1766 in Brunswick County, North Carolina.  He also had a mercantile business in Charleston, South Carolina.  He died on 1825 and she died on 12-29-1836 both of which were in Jacksonville, Florida.  Their children: Charles born,㺅-18-1785, Frances,�,  Elizabeth Sarah, 㺁-31-1792, and John Nathaniel, 11-17-1795. 

Colonel John Nathaniel Broward:   Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Jr.’s Grandfather was John Broward who was born in All Saints Parish, Georgetown, District, Beauford, South Carolina on 11/17/1795.    

He met Margaret Tucker who was born on May, 1801, (her parents were Thomas & Margaret Tucker) in Georgia and married her on October 15, 1824 in Jacksonville, Florida.    She died on 5-29-1869 in Jacksonville, Florida.    He named his children after famous people, Pulaski (Revolutionary War), Washington, (1st US President), and Montgomery (British General). 

As of the 1850 U.S. Census, his was a farmer. They subsequently had 10 children, John Nathaniel Broward, 1825, Charles, 1826, *Napoleon B. Broward, Sr., �, Maria  Broward ,1832, Caroline�, Helen Muland Broward, 1836, Margaret Broward, 1841,  Washington, Broward, 1864, Montgomery, 1843, and Florida Broward, 1846.  

Resource:  Florida Heritage Collection  

From the second Spanish period, after Florida became a territory in 1821, the private claims of John F. Brown (71+acres) and John Christopher (191+acres) made up most of the old 300 acre English grant. Other grants to the north and west were to Domingo Fernandez and Levin Gumby and 2,486 acres to John Broward.  

They were very instructmental by supporting  the Confederate Army as they sent beef, pork, fish, fruit and as well as salt.  The usage of salt was extremely important in order to preserve the soldier’s meat from spoiling.

John Broward  (grandfather) was elected to the Florida House of Representative during the year of 1845.
Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, Sr., was born in 1828 in Cedar Creek, Florida and he met and married Mary Dorcas Parsons (born on 1835 in Eaton, New Hampshire) on 12-1851 in Mayport, Florida, she died on 1869.  

Their children, California Broward, born 1858, Osceola Broward, 1858,  Josephine Broward, 1852, *Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, Jr. ,  1857, Emily Broward,� , Captain Montcalm Broward, 1859, Mary Dorcas Broward, 1861, and   Hortense Broward,�  

*Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Jr.:   His autobiography: and Subsequent autobiography: 

The son of John Broward was Napoleon Bonaparte Broward (4-19-1857-1910), for whom the Bridge which connects East Arlington with Dames Point  in Jacksonville, Florida was named, should be first on the list.

Amander Parsons moved from New Hampshire about 1840, and bought a saw mill in Mayport, Florida for which he called “Mayport Mills”.    At this time, he did not know that Amander Parsons would be his  future father-in-law.  

Soon after his arrival, his daughter Mary was 16 years old, met and married Napoleon Broward, Sr. in 1851.  Their children:  Jospehine Broward, Enid Lyle Broward, Elsie Hortense Broward, Ella Jeanette Broward, Agnes Caroline Broward, Florida Douglass Broward, Elizabeth Hutchinson Broward, Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, III. 

Pulaski Broward he joined the Confederate Army on 5-18-1862, as a member of the Marion Light Artillery Unit, he was honorable discharged on 5-10-1865 while in Meridian, Mississippi. He applied for his pension (#7332) which documents that he had developed pneumonia after leaving the battle at Ringgold, Georgia, marching to Atlanta, Georgia, and subsequently received a gunshot to the head just above his ear while fighting in Atlanta, Georgia.  The application was executed and signed by Pulaski Broward, 2103 Main Street, Jacksonville, Florida, dating 8-11-1907. The request for his pension was approved on 8-31-1907 and he was to receive $120.00 per year. 

Subsequently after his death, his wife, Vivian Karcher (they were married 9-27-1899 and resided in Duval County since 10-1-1899. He filed for an increase for his pension on 9-13-1913 at which time he indicated he was 81 years old.  She applied for Widow’s Pension (A01606) benefits on 4-1-1914, while residing in Duval County, Florida it was ordered that she would receive $120.00.    

Montgomery Broward joined the Confederate Army, 1861, as a member of the Marion Light Artillery Unit.   They were married on 11-23-1871 in Hamilton County, his wife Elizabeth living in Panama, Florida, filed for a Widow’s Pension (A12211) on pension application after his death on 29-1899 and it was ordered on 3-26-1908 that she would received $120.00 per year.    

The Civil War had a dramatic effect on the Parson-Broward families. Several of the Broward men joined the Confederate army, Napoleon Sr. being a captain of the “David Kemps” and then they were partners in the “Kate Spencer” boat. In order for the safety of the family, they were sent to their home in White Springs to live until after the war was over.    

When the United States Army and Navy invaded Florida, Confederates, members of the Broward family were repeatedly implicated by harassment, consequently, in July 1862, the Broward Plantation was shelled and burned by Union forces, completely destroying it.     

However by the fall of 1862, the salt works had been developed at Cedar Point to help produce the salt which was so critical to the preservation of food for the Confederate Army. The records of the Union Gunboat U.S.S. Cimerone tell of destroying that salt works at Cedar Point in October 1862.

By war’s end, Florida’s production of salt would prove to be its greatest contribution in terms of monetary value to the Confederate economy.   Resource:  National Park Service   During the war, the Broward Plantation, barns and fences were burned by the Union Soldiers. 

Subsequently, his New Castle Home was burned and he was temporarily jailed due to his allegiance. After the war, Napoleon Jr. and his brother Malcolm performed heavy labor to help the family survive, as they were not great farmers. 

His father moved the family back to brother’s place, the former John Broward Plantation, where their aunts became responsible for raising the boys.  He built a log house on the north side of the river and another home at New Castle with orange groves with the help of his sons. 

Later his wife, Mary Parsons Broward died in 1869 due to the toll of the war and she was subsequently buried at Newcastle.  Napoleon Sr. was grieving over the loss of his wife, and in Dec. of 1870 he spent the night in the cemetery and later died from pneumonia. 

Napoleon, Jr. lived on the Broward Family Plantation for some time until his grandfather died 1873.  He and his brother Malcolm remained on the farm until the fall of 1875, when they moved into town with their uncle, Joe Parsons.  While living with their uncle they learned their skills of sawing the pine tree (farm) which was located in the Mill Cove area.    

In 1876, having graduated high school, Broward, Jr. became a ship's mate and traveled to New England, where he stayed for two years.  He later returned to Jacksonville in 1878 he landing a job aboard the tugboat which was owned by Mr. Kemp.  

This is where he met his future wife, Georgiana Caroline “Carrie” Kemps and they were married on 1/6/1883 in New Berlin, Duval County, Florida.  She became pregnant, but later died during childbirth on 12-1883.  Sadly, a few days later their daughter did not survive.     

Broward, Jr. withdrew from the river for a while and had the itch again to travel up north, but, by 1885 he was back on the St. Johns, piloting his father-in-law's steamboat “Kate Spencer”. On the ship he met Annie Douglass who was born 3-13-1867, a frequent passenger.  After their courtship they fell in love and were married on 5-5-1887.    

He was very known around town and as a result of the recent prison break-out, the county Democratic leadership council nominated Brown as the "new sheriff" as they all agreed he was the best man for the job.  The governor of Florida appointed him to the post on February 27.

He was unable to keep the river off of his mind and on 12-18-1893, he entered an agreement with John J. Daly and Charles Scammell to be proprietors in a boat building company on Fort George Island which would be a "one boat hull".  “ The Three Friends ” was built by Napoleon, Malcolm (his brother) and George DeCottes, a Jacksonville dealer in wood. 

They were approached by the local Cuban community about shipping a load of munitions and some Cuban expatriates from Nassau to Cuba. “The Three Friends” shipped out of Jacksonville on their maiden voyage, with 100 tons of coal, 3,000 Winchester rifles, 500 machetes, 1 Million priming caps, 500 pounds of sulfur, 60 barrels of water, 2 cannons, 500 pounds of dynamite, and General Enrique Colasso straight to Cuba. 

He continued this filibustering operation (gun smuggling) until President William McKinley declared war on Spain.  He encountered several close calls, when his boat was nearly caught and destroyed by Spanish gunboats the Spanish ambassador to the United States demanded that Broward be stopped and his ship impounded.    

The U.S. authorities attempted to do stop the boat, but, he managed to escape by loading the ship under the cover of darkness in secluded locations, by hiding her behind larger ships as she left the St. Johns River, and by picking up Cubans and munitions from other ships at various points near the mouth of the river.  

He later gained statewide recognition of his filibustering days. In 1900, the war over and his filibustering days behind him, Broward was nominated for the House of Representative, for which he won without any opposition.   

While in the House, Broward supported several initiatives which included a state dispensary bill and a law allowing insanity as grounds for divorce (at the request of the powerful developer, Henry Flagler ).  In 1902 he was not interested in politics, as he was busy with a salvage operation in the Keys.  

He was Governor of Florida from 1905-1909 and had family both in the Arlington area (New Castle Plantation) and on the north side of the river.  

He successfully ran for Governor of Florida and was inaugurated on January 3, 1905.  He was befriended by President Theodore Roosevelt who was an avid supporter for the Everglades drainage project.

Georgiana III SP-83 - History

Now, I don’t know about you, but breakfast was a do-it-yourself meal in my family home when I was growing up. It was not a social meal, and we would eat at different times, still dressed in our pyjamas, soon after waking up.

Breakfast in the Regency was quite different.

Print by T Rowlandson (1802-11) after H W Bunbury
What time was breakfast?

A Regency breakfast was normally a social occasion when all the family gathered at a specific time to eat together. The timing varied from household to household, but 9 am, 9.30 am and 10 am were common times.

François de la Rochefoucauld wrote in 1784:

Jane Austen wrote to her sister in 1808:

It has struck ten I must go to breakfast.4

This variety is emphasised in a paragraph in Persuasion which states:

Tea things in the dining room, A la Ronde (2015)
A social meal

This excerpt from Fanny Burney’s Camilla suggests that it was normal practice to wait for everyone to arrive before starting. Sir Hugh is impatient for his breakfast the morning after a ball:

Mrs Bennet in Pride and Prejudice (1895 edition) by CE Brock
In Northanger Abbey, Catherine Morland breakfasts with the Tilneys. General Tilney feels his eldest son has shown disrespect to their guest by not turning up to breakfast on time:

Mr Allen attended her to Milsom Street, where she was to breakfast, and saw her seated with the kindest welcome among her new friends but so great was her agitation in finding herself as one of the family, and so fearful was she of not doing exactly what was right, and of not being able to preserve their good opinion, that, in the embarrassment of the first five minutes, she could almost have wished to return with him to Pulteney Street.

Miss Tilney’s manners and Henry’s smile soon did away some of her unpleasant feelings but still she was far from being at ease nor could the incessant attentions of the general himself entirely reassure her. Nay, perverse as it seemed, she doubted whether she might not have felt less, had she been less attended to. His anxiety for her comfort—his continual solicitations that she would eat, and his often-expressed fears of her seeing nothing to her taste—though never in her life before had she beheld half such variety on a breakfast-table—made it impossible for her to forget for a moment that she was a visitor. She felt utterly unworthy of such respect, and knew not how to reply to it. Her tranquillity was not improved by the general’s impatience for the appearance of his eldest son, nor by the displeasure he expressed at his laziness when Captain Tilney at last came down. She was quite pained by the severity of his father’s reproof, which seemed disproportionate to the offence and much was her concern increased when she found herself the principal cause of the lecture, and that his tardiness was chiefly resented from being disrespectful to her.7

By ten o’clock the whole party was assembled at the park, where they were to breakfast. The morning was rather favourable, though it had rained all night, as the clouds were then dispersing across the sky, and the sun frequently appeared. They were all in high spirits and good humour, eager to be happy, and determined to submit to the greatest inconveniences and hardships rather than be otherwise.

While they were at breakfast the letters were brought in. Among the rest there was one for Colonel Brandon—he took it, looked at the direction, changed colour, and immediately left the room.

“What is the matter with Brandon?” said Sir John.

“I hope he has had no bad news,” said Lady Middleton. “It must be something extraordinary that could make Colonel Brandon leave my breakfast table so suddenly.”8

The breakfast room, Kenwood House (2019)
In Sense and Sensibility, breakfast was eaten in the breakfast parlour:

The Reverend Thomas Talbot, staying with his sister at Saltram House in the early 1800s wrote that if there were no visitors, breakfast was eaten in the Blue Bow Room, but if there were visitors, breakfast was eaten in the morning room at 10.30 am.10

Although breakfast was generally a social meal, not everyone joined the breakfast table.

In Camilla, Mrs Arlbery did not join the others for breakfast:

Breakfast was the first meal of the day, but not the first activity. Generally, people were up for a couple of hours before they gathered for breakfast.

On waking, a lady might drink a cup of hot chocolate in her room to sustain her until breakfast time. During the first hour or two of her morning, she might write letters, go for a walk, or even go shopping.

Illustration by H Thompson from Persuasion (1897 edition)
In Jane Austen’s Emma, John Knightley meets Jane Fairfax before breakfast as he was returning from a walk with his little boys, when it was just beginning to rain. Jane explained that:

The Dukeof Wellington had a habit of waking early and dealing with his correspondence before breakfast.

Harding Howell & Co, Ackermann's Repository (1809)
What did they eat?

The main constituent of breakfast was bread or toast and butter, with tea and coffee to drink. This could be served with marmalade and other preserves.

François de la Rochefoucauld wrote in 1784:

Tea caddy, A la Ronde (2015)

Those that could afford it took their tea with hot milk or cream, and nearly always with sugar – at least until the abolitionist movement encouraged people to boycott sugar which came from plantations using slave labour.

The fare on offer was not always restricted to bread or toast and butter. In Mansfield Park, it appears that breakfast included eggs and cold pork:

Urn in eating room at Osterley Park (2015)
Private breakfasts

Sometimes, a breakfast was held as an event, like a party. The Persian ambassador, MirzaAbul Hassan, wrote of attending a breakfast masquerade at the home of Lady Buckinghamshire in May 1810. Around 500 people were invited, most of whom came in fancy dress, and tables full of food and drink were laid out in the garden.20

Breakfasts could also be held publicly.

In Camilla, they attend a public breakfast:

“Come, my little girls, come!” cried he, as he entered the room “get your hats and cloaks as fast as possible there is a public breakfast at Northwick, and you are all expected without delay.”

This sudden invitation occasioned a general commotion. Indiana gave an involuntary jump Camilla and Eugenia looked delighted and Miss Margland seemed ready to second the proposition but Sir Hugh, with some surprise, exclaimed: “A public breakfast, my dear boy! why where's the need of that, when we have got so good a private one?”21

For the working classes, breakfast fare was much the same – bread and butter and tea. This was taken part way through the morning, around 8 am, after two hours work.

The bankers and merchants would similarly stop for breakfast after a few hours works at 9 am or later. Breakfast could be bought from public houses – to eat in or take away – and from street stalls.

1. Johnson, Samuel, Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language in Miniature, Rev Joseph Hamilton (1810)

2. From A Frenchman in England 1784 by François, Duc de la Rochefoucauld, quoted in Pettigrew, Jane and Richardson, Bruce, A Social History of Tea (2014)

3. Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice (1813, London)

4. Austen, Jane, The Letters of Jane Austen selected from the compilation of her great nephew, Edward, Lord Bradbourne ed Sarah Woolsey (1892)

5. Austen, Jane, Persuasion (1817)

6. Burney, Fanny, Camilla (1796)

7. Austen, Jane, Northanger Abbey (1817)

8. Austen, Jane, Sense and Sensibility (1811)

10. Pettigrew, Jane and Richardson, Bruce, A Social History of Tea (2014)

11. Burney, Fanny, Camilla (1796)

12. Edgeworth, Maria, Belinda (1801)

13. Austen, Jane, Emma (1815)

14. Austen, Jane, Persuasion (1817)

15. Austen, Jane, The Letters of Jane Austen selected from the compilation of her great nephew, Edward, Lord Bradbourne ed Sarah Woolsey (1892)

16. Austen, Jane, Sense and Sensibility (1811)

17. From A Frenchman in England 1784 by François, Duc de la Rochefoucauld, quoted in Pettigrew, Jane and Richardson, Bruce, A Social History of Tea (2014)

18. Espriella, Don Manuel Alvare, Letters from England, translated from the Spanish by Robert Southey 3rd edition (1814) Volume 1

19. Austen, Jane, Mansfield Park (1814)

20. Hassan Khan, Mirza Abul, A Persian at the Court of King George 1809-10, edited by Margaret Morris Cloake (1988)

21. Burney, Fanny, Camilla (1796)

22. Austen, Jane, The Letters of Jane Austen selected from the compilation of her great nephew, Edward, Lord Bradbourne ed Sarah Woolsey (1892)

Austen, Jane, Emma (1815)

Austen, Jane, Mansfield Park (1814)

Austen, Jane, Northanger Abbey (1817)

Austen, Jane, Persuasion (1817)

Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice (1813)

Austen, Jane, Sense and Sensibility (1811)

Austen, Jane, The Letters of Jane Austen selected from the compilation of her great nephew, Edward, Lord Bradbourne ed Sarah Woolsey (1892)

Burney, Fanny, Camilla (1796)

Cruickshank, Dan and Burton, Neil, Life in the Georgian City (1990)

Edgeworth, Maria, Belinda (1801)

Espriella, Don Manuel Alvare, Letters from England, translated from the Spanish by Robert Southey 3rd edition (1814) Volume 1

Hassan Khan, Mirza Abul, A Persian at the Court of King George 1809-10, edited by Margaret Morris Cloake (1988)

Johnson, Samuel, Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language in Miniature, Rev Joseph Hamilton (1810)

Pettigrew, Jane and Richardson, Bruce, A Social History of Tea (2014)


ANSI and the greater standardization community are stepping up with guidance, resources, and initiatives to support public health, safety, and infrastructure during the COVID-19 outbreak. As needs continue to emerge and standards-based solutions are identified, ANSI is monitoring and sharing relevant news highlighting these efforts via a frequently updated collection of relevant announcements and resources.

Watch the video: Georgiana Góes (November 2021).